Current urbanization patterns
More living in cities than rural: 60% urban in 2030.
Mega cities are growing in the developing nations
Why? People don’t want to be in agricultural sector.
Although there’s a rise in conventional agriculture, there is a loss of
Forces of urban migration?
Desertification, poor land, degraded soils, mechanization, climate
change induced drought
Costs and benefits of urban life and ecology
Pull: job opportunities, services, education, etc.
Push: unemployment, non-productive lands.
Rural/ urban dichotomy (page 8)
More rural traditional agriculture in developing countries
Issues of urban ecology (page 9)
Poverty, unemployment, access to food and housing, waste
disposal, pollution etc.
Food consumed in cities are produced elsewhere
25% of urban third world population is dependent on food aid.
2008 food crisis
Lots are illegal housing
Prone to risk due to settlement in vulnerable land
Lack of proper sewage treatment leads to health hazards
Dumping our garbage to developing countries—environmental
Industrial water pollution
Water used as solvent to pick up waste
Organic waste lead to algae bloom, loss of fish
Toxic and hazardous substances
Industrial and automotive Combustion of fuel