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Lecture outline Sept 26.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science

Lecture outline Sept 26 Lecture September 26 Players in International Development These notes are made available courtesy of Elena Goracinova. Feel free to add points and relevant links and resources to the note. (Click on the edit tab above, make the additions, and be sure to click "Save" at the bottom of the page when finished) Roles of players like NGO’s, corporations, states, think tanks, and individuals How do they interact in the development debate or process? Recap: How development is supposed to be defined? - Shortcomings of WB definition of development (measuring development through GDP) - How we decide what to measure is predetermined by the kind of assumptions we have about the world or what we value about the world. - If you value material wealth then GDP might be a good indicator, but if you value various freedoms, then you might think of other ways of measuring well-being in addition to GDP. - Ideas of progress: increasing faith in the power of science in explaining the world; some people are stuck in early stage of progress, while others are developed. Nonetheless, science tells us that everything can go in stages and toward progress and development. This view labels some as superior (already developed) and others as inferior (less developed). Lecture objectives: Context: huge development industry (large number of people employed) - Key players/actors in international development? - Their motivation for participation - How do they interact? - Who benefits? - Changing trends and dynamics in regards to international development actors Context: -Failure of neoliberal development policy (especially visible in today’s economic crisis) - Economic crisis: countries that are receiving handouts are in the developed countries. China is becoming one of the biggest lenders and the world’s “economic masters” are changing. We are also seeing a lot of changes in the Middle East and North Africa. Questions about the Arab Spring The Occupy Movement: challenge to the neoliberal system generating wealth with the consequence of 99 percent of the people being subjugated by the one percent, which possesses most of the wealth à Relationship between hyper capitalism and inequality is becoming extremely visible. Wealthiest companies: Apple, Google Wealthy organizations are shifting the trajectory of development. Namely a lot of corporations have funds dedicated to social and development programs à new money shifting the debates in development (who gets to be the actor, who gets to play) Rise of powerful nations: China (fast growing nation which is lending money to the US and others and that has a growing middle class; also has an increasing presence in Africa) China doesn’t tie its aid in the same way that the World Bank would and yet they have a lot of power and resources (give us the rights to a mineral resource and we will give you an x amount of money) BRICS countries: emerging, fast growing economies changing the global economic landscape. There is a shift in geopolitical power. Profit and money can lead to power, which is the goal of many corporations Proliferation of actors whereas in the past the state and state agencies were more central: UN - Formed after WWII, handle multilateral global problems - Goal of coming to an understanding in order to resolve our differences without going to war - It has a very noble objective - Bodies that look after human rights (women’s rights, cultural rights, children’s rights, world health organization) Problems with the UN: - Does the US have too much power in the UN? - Bureaucratic, obsolete organizations. - Even little projects would take a long period of time for approval due to the variety of bureaucratic obstacles. Clinton Global Initiative (coincided with the UN General Assembly) - Very exclusive - Bring people together to look at poverty - Bill Clinton is a former US president that was impeached for misconduct (Apparently I made a mistake on this as Clinton was not actually impeached, though he did go through an impeachment trail) - Now, Clinton is a very powerful person that can facilitate donations towards causes he views as worthy. He has “soft power” because he is not in office, but is still very well connected and wields a lot of influence. Celebrities: - George Clooney, Angelina Jolie, Brad Pitt Think tanks: - Research based institution that concentrates on
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