Lecture outline Nov 14
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Education and Development
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- Documents on education almost always include happy children. Everyone agrees that
education is necessary.
- However, education is also a tool for political power and not all of us agree on it.
- Education for ALL (what does all mean? Who is included, who is excluded?)
What does development mean?
- There is not one definition, but we often find cardinal (north, south, east, west – Never that
accurate) and ordinal (developed and developing, first and third world, second world- creates an
illusion and/or idea that there is someone that is ahead and someone that is behind; progress is
thought of as moving forward; For development to exist, there has to be a developed and a
developing country trying to catch up) progress and the notion of moving forward.
There are promises:
1) Progress means Competitiveness- it presupposes that there is country, that there is
something stable, that there is territorial stability, and that there is a stable labor market.
Colombia- most of the economy is informal, jobs are not stable, and there are territorial issues,
unresolved issues of land. Even in a fragile political economy, the barriers that people face
are seen as a result of lack of education. A cycle of continuous education, which feeds into a
promise that you will eventually get a job.
2) Progress means social justice
Looks at pockets of underdevelopment, at poverty and tries to attach a program so that people
get more opportunity and create a wheel of promise. The wheel of promise is a very powerful
one: this program is going to be very good for you; it is going to give you a better chance. However, things often don’t change on a structural level and hence these promises are often left
- Countries that in the periphery of the periphery, countries that are in the periphery, countries
that are in the center, countries that are in the periphery of the center.
- The center has the most sophisticated jobs in terms of knowledge in opposition to the periphery.
The closer to the periphery are the closer to the land you areThere is an international division
- There is a socioeconomic class division within countries, the closer you are to the high class,
the closer you are to the world.
- Promise that you will develop, developed economies integrated developing economies.
- The more advanced you are in educational terms, the more you have opportunities for linkage.
- Education takes on multiple development purposes.
- The most popular in foreign aid is basic education. The most political values is in basic
education. A politician will always use basic education as a flag for votes.
- The more advanced a country is, the more they get assistance for more advanced forms of
- Whoever the donor is, it meets with the government to decide development goals – donations
are often in the form of materials for classrooms, spaces for recreation.
- It’s not just about who gives the money, but how the people are receiving the money is trying to
make changes with the money they are getting.
How big goals and a lot of money are translated to meaningful goals?
Millennium Challenge Corporation (us) and FOMEILENIO (El Salvador)
- Decided to fund countries that are following the rule of law, that support free markets, that
don’t have pending land issues – very strategic decision making in terms of how to donate
- El Salvador established priorities by consultation with different actors in the country (400
million). Allegedly there are no ties to the money since there are no loans. - US interest is to connect countries in order to facilitate free trade in order to sign free trade
agreements. Hence, they have an interest in funding infrastructural projects that contribute to
connecting countries in the region.
- People said they didn’t need a highway since they didn’t even drive. However, they said
that they were going to create bike lanes.
- Paved roads as crucial to education.
- The government thought it was important to create vocational programs (computers,
business). However, it made sense to dedicate resources that would develop local agriculture
(sustainable fishing, cheese making). Help construct curriculums to include people that didn’t
know how to read or write in order for them to be able to participate in sustainable fishing,
- The program was successful in that small scale. People are not that much better off, but
there are some mechanisms established that can help them.
- However, the US will give more money in order to introduce infrastructure in the southern
part and it has agreed to fund the private sector.
- Even though the whole program didn’t have an overly noble goal, consultants can still try to
introduce programs that actually help local people.
Canada (struggle of First Nations People); Greenland
- Only 30 percent of Inuit people graduate from high school compared to an 80 percent
- Indigenous people have gained power; they have taken advantage of globalization and are
connecting amongst themselves.
- There is no land ownership, resources are of the people
- Their nation states have failed them
- If the ice melts, there is a maritime route that will reduce time of travel to a third. However,
with the power indigenous people are gaining, they are disallowing any developments without
- On the one h