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Political Science
Marney Isaac

IDS B02 Notes THE PROBLEMS OF ENVIRONMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING IN TURKEY Tzin Baycan Levent Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Istanbul Technical University, Ta kla 80191 Taksim, Istanbul, Turkey Fax: 0090 212 251 48 95 E- mail: [email protected] ). - Economic condition corruption showed its effect on all developing countries, especially in many parts of Africa and Latin America, and caused a fall in the quality of life. Urban poverty increased everywhere faster than rural poverty; policies to increase agricultural productivity and decreasing the public spendings known as macro-economic policies were more effective in urban areas as they are more highly-populated, and led to price increases in food, water, energy and housing, in contrast to low real wages against inflation. On the other hand, the number of those who migrated to the urban areas from the rural areas increased, most of those comers started to work irregularly as street sellers, and cleaners, and high level informal economy become a character of the developing countries -Rapid population growth, land consolidation and agricultural modernization in fertile agricultural areas and inequalities in land tenure have caused more and more people to migrate to less productive areas or urban places. - Depending on these, opening the farmland after deforestation, plantation on steep slopes and land erosions are the outcome. In lands where traditional agricultural technology is applied, high population growth forces the limited resources to be divided to decrease continuously, and this period in time, in areas where fragile environmental conditions exist leads to environmental degradation and poverty getting into a spiral. On this context, the poorest people of the world live in two areas; remote and ecologically fragile rural areas and the edge of growing urban areas - the poor must often pay higher prices for food, shelter and essential services depending on budget restrictions, and financial reforms. Among the poor; the women, children and the elderly are the mostly affected group in regard to environmental threats - Although cities play a key role in the development process, they can also be unhealthy, inefficient and inequitable places to live in. Third world countries face the problems of lack of safe water, inadequate waste management and pollution control, accidents linked to congestion and crowding, inappropriate use of land, loss of the historical inheritance, occupation and degradation of sensitive lands and the interrelationships between 3these problems. - The pressure created by the rapid demographic and economic growth threaten the ability of cities to respond with efficient policies and sufficient infrastructure and services. In city centers of most developing countries, basic environmental infrastructure and services in the megacities or in secondary urban centers are becoming increasingly difficult to be met. - The environmental consequences turn into negative impacts on human health, the quality of life, the productivity of the city and the surrounding ecosystems. Indeveloped city centers, on the other hand, housing problems, unemployment, crime and violance and unqualified labour force in cities are the basic problems - In most developing countries industry holds a major share in commercial energy demand. Service sector becomes increasingly important, industrial production volume keeps expanding in most of these countries and a growth in energy demand follows it. - Depending on migration, unprecedented rise of population caused inadequacy of infrastructure and rapid deterioration of urban environment. Rapid industrialization, inappropriate land use decisions and industrial wastewater which is discharged without any treatment to the receiving bodies have caused environmental pollution. On the other hand, loss of soil and erosion, decrease in the quantity and the quality of the forests, the pressures of urbanization and tourism activities have been the other major problems of Turkey - Urban poverty has increased since 1980 in most of Africa and Latin America but has decreased in most of Asia (UNDIESA, 1989; World Bank, 1992a). Most parts of Asia escaped lightly from the debt crisis of the 1980s, at least compared to the impact in most of Africa and Latin America -People arriving in already overstressed urban centres are forced to live in dangerous areas that are unsuitable for real estate or industrial development, many constructing their own homes in informal settlements on floodplains, in swamp areas and on unstable hillsides, often with inade- quate or completely lacking infrastructure and basic services to support human life, safety and development. Many of these slum residents are often blamed by their governments for their own poor living conditions. Even without additional weather-related stresses, such as higher-intensity or more frequent storms, these are dangerous living environments. Furthermore, climate impacts upon the tourism industry can induce migration from rural to urban areas, thus increasing the demand for goods and services within urban area133 Moreover, indigenous peoples often lack security of land tenure and legally recognized property rights, which can force them to settle in hazardous areas if they are removed from their 2and. s a further complicating issue, environmental degradation itself may occur not only due to climate change impacts, but as a side effect of
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