PSL300H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Hyperglycemia, Sulfonylurea, Proglucagon

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Parasympathetic nervous system: decrease blood glucose, promotes anabolic pathway (promotes breakdown, involved in growth. Sympathetic nervous system: increases blood glucose, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis. Released from intestine in response to glucose/amino acids. Sum of all reactions in the body. Anabolic reactions: building for storage: feeding, absorptive. Catabolic reactions: breaking things down into parts for energy: fasting, postabsorptive. Connects directly to small intestines (duodenum: facilitates digestion. 98% is exocrine cells (make enzymes to be released) Islet of langerhans (2%: , , and cells, small percentage, but essential to homeostasis. Cells release proinsulin: cleaved in vesicle released as 1 c peptide : 1 insulin anabolic. **the balance b/w insulin & glucagon concentrations tell the body to switch functions b/w fed & fasting states** Mechanism: cell membrane binding activates # of pathways, tyrosine kinase receptor, effect on the body, reduce blood glucose, promotes formation of glycogen, fat, and protein. Activates enzymes in glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis: inhibits enzyme for glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and lipolysis.

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