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Lecture 7

PSL440Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Lateral Sulcus, Parietal Lobe, Frontal Lobe


Department
Physiology
Course Code
PSL440Y1
Professor
Doug Hutchinson
Lecture
7

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Lecture'7:'Cerebrum'
" Cerebral!hemispheres!have!folded!sheets!of!gray!matter!called!gyri!(gyrus)!and!sulci!(sulcus)!–!variable!pattern!but!
everyone!has:!!
4!lobes:!occipital,!parietal,!temporal,!frontal!!
Landmarks!in!defining!the!lobes!are!the!central!sulcus!between!parietal!and!frontal!!
Lateral!or!Sylvian!fissure!between!frontoparietal!and!temporal!lobes!and!parietal"occipital!fissure!
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" pituitary!sits!on!pit!in!bottom!of!the!skull!(stalk!pulls!away!from!that)!
" base!of!diencephalon!is!the!mammillary!body!!
" peduncles!hold!up!the!hemispheres!!
" the!uncus!is!where!the!amygdala!sticks!out!into!the!brain!
" Sulci!and!gyri!are!variable!between!hemispheres!and!individuals!but!there!are!some!consistent!ones!!
" particularly!deep!sulci!are!called!fissures!!
" by!separating!the!temporal!and!frontal!lobes!the!insula!can!be!seen!(=island)!
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Lateral'View'of'the'Human'Brain'
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Terminology''
A. Neocortex!(isocortex)!–!6!layers!(the!more!layers!
it!has,!the!more!evolutionarily!modern!it!is)!!!
higher!primates!
B. Allocortex!"!is!3!or!4!layered!
1. Archicortex!–!hippocampus,!dentate!gyrus!
(earlier!versions!of!cortex)!
2. Paleocortex!–!olfactory!cortex!(old!cortex)!
!!probably!oldest;!simple!structure;!
directly!in!forebrain!
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There'are'six'layers'of'the'neocortex'(refers!to!
histological!cell!type)!
1. Molecular!layer!(I)!–!below!pia,!horizontal!cells!
2. External!granule!layer!(II)!"!pyramidal!cells!–!
granular!appearance!when!stained!
3. External!pyramidal!layer!(III)"!pyramidal!cells,!
association/!commissural!fibres!!!locally!
associated,!or!going!across!hemispheres!
4. Internal!granular!layer!(IV)!–!granule!cells,!stellate!
cells,!thalamic!(LGN)!input!!!!striate!cortex!!
important!for!visual!input!
5. Internal!pyramidal!layer!(V)!–!pyramidal!cells!of!corticobulbar,!
corticospinal,!and!corticostriatal!tracts,!Betz!cells!in!M1!(area!4)!!!deeper!
down!is!more!serious!output!cells!
6. Multiform!layer!(VI)!–!corticothalamic!projection!cells,!commissural!and!
association!fibres!
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" most!of!these!areas/!motor!areas!are!excited!in!vertical!columns!
" arrangement!of!cortex!is!in!vertical!arrays!!
" the!more!superficial!cells!project!locally!in!more!superficial!layers!!
o starting!layer!3,!goes!further,!and!through!corpus!callosum!
" lamina!4,!LGN!visua;!input!here!
" thalamus!also!projects!to!lamina!1!
" DAergic,!5HTergic,!and!cholinergic!to!the!cortex!!
" many!association!cortex!has!NT!regulators!that!change!their!level!of!activity!
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