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History Methods to Post

Course Code
Dan Dolderman

of 3
Lecture 2 Notes History Methods to Post
History of Psychology
1.The science of psych has come a long way
2.Where the consciousness lied was always debated
3.Psych is always contextualized in a larger set
4.Couldn't study the human body for a very long time because it was forbidden
oBarriers against psychology
5.Descartes : 1600s
o1600s = People started to invent things during this time
oExtremely intense, unbalanced, driven personality
oMajor figure in philosophy
oProposed a systematic account of the body as a machine
Humans and animals were complicated machines that consisted with
the mechanistic zeitgeist of time
6.Mind - Body Dualism
oFreedom exists in the mind
oMind (nonphysical) couldn't function in the same realm as the body(physical)
How to Study an Immaterial Mind?
7.Study of physiology started the discussion for psychology
8.Wilhelm Wundt
oPhysiologist; extremely curious and careful experimentalist
oWondered whether two stimuli that struck senses at same time would be
PERCEIVED at the same moment
oReasons that it takes 1/10th of a second to reorient human's attention from
the bell to the position of the pendulum
This experiment meant that >> mental processes could be studied
9. Influences on psychology often come from outside of psychology
oPossibly the biggest influence on subsequent psychology was Darwin's theory
of evolution
oBuilt it on previous ideas of evolution vs. creationism theories
oIncredibly curious and observant
oCatastrophism - reigning theory of the day consistent with Church dogma;
argued that geological formations were the result of major catastrophes
oUniformitarianism - Lyell; argued that geological formations were the result
of gradual changes over extremely long periods of time
11.Thomas Malthus
oEssay on population : without sufficient predation or disease, populations
would boom, outstrip food supply and collapse
12.William James
oFounder of functionalism
oStudied medicine and then went through major emotional crisis >>
determinism vs. free will
oAs a human he had to believe in free will, or he would be extremely
depressed, but he couldn't because it didnt lie in the realm of scientific reason
But assumed there was free will anyway
"My first act of free will, shall be to believe in free will."
As a scientisit…….. (FINISH LATER)
oDescribed thinking as a dynamic relationship between organism and
oArgued that psychology should be a practical science; focused on improving
welfare, happiness, etc
oHabit - recognized that we construct ourselves through our actions, thoughts,
choices, etc.
So if you want to be happier, more socially >> PRACTICE
James said we must force ourselves to practice Y even if X is our
default if we want to overcome our undesirable emotional tendencies
Eventually individual becomes what first felt as unnatural, Y,
and it becomes our default, X
13.The foundation upon which we are still building today: (FINISH LATER)
The 20th Century
14.Psychology begins to fracture into many different schools of thought
15.Cognitive revolution > 1960s - 1970s
16.Biological revolution > 1980s - now
17.Neuroscience revolution > 1990s - now
Adopting a Scientific Perspective on People
18.Psychology is becoming a more integrated discipline
oPhenomena are understood at multiple levels of analysis
oMoving toward multi-factor causal models that require people to think more
holistically, systemically, integratively
19.EX = How do you help someone with a troubled mind? (with depression)
oDepends on what you consider depression to be
oTreatment will be molded by your perception of depression's definition
Third Variable Explanations
20.Does A > B?
21.It's possibly that A and B are both caused by a third factor C ( PUT IN GRAPH
oEX = genes/depression >>>>>> smoking
>>>>>> cancer
22.Does psychotherapy actually improve mental health?
oPsychotherapy involves:
The specific psychotherapy technique
Talking to a validating, empathetic person
Articulating your problems
Making a coherent narrative out of your experience
Having regular social contact
Doing something you believe will make you feel better
Control Groups
23.Very important
24.Finding the right control group is the trickiest thing to do
25.Science is not about the facts but about the hypotheses
26.Single studies are not very meaningful
oHave to rely on:
Convergence - multiple perspectives
Multiple methods
Peer review process