PSY100H1 Lecture Notes - Unconditional Positive Regard, Walter Mischel, Hans Eysenck

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5 Feb 2013
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Personnality
Personality: The characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviours that
are relatively stable in an individual over time and across circumstances
Strong Situations:
- Powerful social environments mask differences in personality
- E.g., Job interviews, funerals, hanging out with your boss
Weak Situations:
- Allow people to behave more freely; easier to discern personality differences
- E.g., At home, at a bar, hanging out with friends
Different Ways of Studying & Understanding Personality
Unconscious processes
- E.g., Sigmund Freud
Personal experiences
- E.g., Carl Rogers
Trait approaches (most common approach these days)
- E.g., Hans Eysenck
Cognitive approaches
- E.g., Walter Mischel
Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory
Emphasizes the influence of unconscious forces on behaviour
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- Id: pleasure principle; impulses, desires and wishes. Very self-focused and selfish
- Superego: Can be considered as the opposite of Id, rigid and moral based entity
that drives your behaviour.
- Ego: ourselves, trying to choose which of the two to follow ( Id; devil on your
shoulder, superego, angel on your shoulder)
These two battle and from that, anxiety comes out
Defence mechanisms: Unconscious mental strategies the mind uses to protect itself
Note that Freud’s theories are not used that much anymore as they were not testable
Humanistic Approaches
Emphasize personal experience and belief systems; propose that people seek
personal growth to fulfill their human potential
self-actualization
Roger’s person-centred approach
- Phenomenology Subjective human experience
- Unconditional positive regard
- He believed that parents should show unconditional positive regard (unconditional
love) in order for children to fully develop.
Positive psychology
E.g., Barbara Frederickson; Broaden-and-build theory
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