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PSY100H1 Lecture Notes - Motivation, Erection, Human Sexual Response Cycle

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Dan Dolderman

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Psychology Chapter 9 Notes
Multiple Factors Motivate Behavior
- Maslow proposed a “need theory” of motivation
- Need Hierarchy is an arrangement of needs in which basic survival
needs (hunger or thirst) must be met before people can satisfy other needs
- Self-Actualization is the when a person achieves their dreams and
personal aspirations. Achieve full happiness
- Pyramid: Physiological, Safety, Belonging and Love, Esteem, Self-
Actualization Drives and Incentives
- Needs create arousal which drives our behavior
- Walter Cannon coined the term homeostasis to describe the bodily
function to maintain equilibrium
- Over time, if a behavior reduces a drive, it becomes a habit
- Incentives are external stimuli that motivate behaviors
- E.g Getting a good grade on your exam is an incentive for studying hard
- Getting a summer job is an incentive for paying for your tuition Arousal
and Performance
- Yerkes-Dodson Law states that performance increases with arousal
until a certain point
- E.g Students perform best on a exam when feeling moderate anxiety.
Too little can make them inattentive and too much and affect their thinking
ability Pleasure
- Freud said that drives are satisfied according to the pleasure principle
which drives people to seek pleasure and avoid pain
- Infants given sweet solutions found them pleasurableSome Behaviors
are Motivated for their Own Sake- Extrinsic motivation emphasizes an
external goal- E.g Working to get a paycheck- Intrinsic motivation is a value
or pleasure that has no external goal - E.g Listening to music
Psychology Chapter 9 Notes
Rewarding Intrinsic Motives
- Mark Lepper allowed children to draw with coloured marking pens,

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something children find I.M
- One group of children were extrinsically motivated to draw by being led
to expect a “good player award”
- Another group of children was rewarded unexpectedly following the
- A third group was neither rewarded nor led to expect a reward
- Children who were extrinsically motivated spent less time with the
- Kids said it was their job to draw with the coloured pens
- It was no longer an intrinsic motivation
- Self-determination argues that extrinsic rewards may reduce intrinsic
values because such rewards undermine people’s feelings that they are choosing
to do something for themselves People Set Goals to Achieve - What is a
good goal- Challenging but not overly difficult and specific goals are the best
- Self-efficacy is the expectancy that your efforts will lead to success-
Increase S.E often lead to challenging goals which lead to success -
Achievement motive is the desire to do well- Students with high achievement
needs sit closer to the front of the class, score higher on exams - Delayed
Gratification is to rise above immediate temptations to achieve long-term
goals- Children able to delay gratification were able to handle frustration better
in the future- Strategies used were turning hot cognitions into cold cognitions
- Turning desired object into undesired- Other strategies were to ignore or
become self distractedPeople Have a Need to Belong- Humans have a
fundamental need to belong- Schachter’s Study on Anxiety and Affiliation-
Females were hooked up to equipment that would give them a shock - Some told
the sock would hurt, other were told it would be painless
Psychology Chapter 9 Notes
- Females who were told the shocks would hurt (had high anxiety) were
more likely to want to wait with others
- Increased anxiety leads to increased motivation to be with others (for
females) Time and Taste Play Roles - We eat because we have been
classically conditioned to associate eating with regular mealtimes - Main factor
that motivates eating is variety. The more variety of food, the more you want to
eat Cultures Determines What We Eat- What people eat is determined by a
combination of personal experience and cultural beliefs - Familiarity determines
food preference- Neophobia is the fear of unfamiliar foodMultiple Neural
Processes Control Eating- Hypothalamus influences eating- Patients with
tumors in hypo. became obese (changes can affect your eating)- Rats with VMH
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