PSY100H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Detection Theory, List Of Memory Biases, Sexual Attraction

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28 Mar 2013
School
Department
Course
Professor
PSY421: Person Perception
Lecture 3: Sexual Orientation
February 6, 2013
Signal detection theory development of radar, sonar, hearing tests
Heard
something
Heard nothing
Sound played
Hit
Miss
No sound
played
False-alarm
Correct
rejection
Accuracy = Times you correctly heard it (hits) Times you thought you heard it (false
alarm)
% Correct = Hits + CRs
2 (doesnt count for guessing and therefore inflates accuracy)
A little more complicated
dt = Z (H rate) Z (FA rate)
Preferred by social psychologists
A = H2 + FA2 + 3×H FA 4×FA×H, only if H FA
4×H×(1-FA)
A = H - H2 + FA FA2, if H < FA
4×FA×(1-H)
- Response bias (C, B, B‟‟)
Separate from accuracy
Describes direction of mistakes
More likely to say silent in presence of noise?
Hard time hearing?
More likely to say noise when silent?
Auditory hallucinations?
- Often applied to studies of memory
I remember
that
I dont
remember
Shown before
Hit
Miss
Never shown
False-alarm
Correct
rejection
Accuracy = correct recognition false recognition
Response bias = Tend to remember things to not seen (+)/not commit unless sure (-)
- Person categorization
I think hes gay
I think hes
straight
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Person is gay
Hit
Miss
Person is
straight
False-alarm
Correct
rejection
Accuracy = ability to tell if gay or straight
Response bias: tend to think everyone is straight (+)/tend to think everyone is gay (-)
Why sexual orientation?
- Some groups are perceptually obvious: race, sex, age
- Cant help but notice identities
- Perception actively influences our thoughts
Many groups are perceptually ambiguous
- Non-obvious distinctions
- Know very little about how we process these
- May offer insight to processes used to categorize others, generally
Sexual orientation is based on sex
1) Inversion hypothesis: a gay man is a woman trapped in a mans body
2) Third sex:
A. Hijra india
B. Two-spirit Blackfoot
C. Conflated with transgender
i. Often true of sexual orientation generally
3) Sexual orientation is socially constructed
Who is gay?
- Anywhere from 1-21% of the population, depending on (decreases as you go down list):
Sexual attraction
Sexual behaviour
Sexual identification
- Best definition self-definition
Homosexuality: A long history
- Cave paintings as back as 7,000 BCE 9,000 BCE (Bronze age)
- More popular examples:
Ancient Egypt, Greece
Japan prior to Westernization (1873)
Samurai culture/fraternal (+ sexual) relationship
- Recent history:
WWII Holocaust
Inverted triangles
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Cold War in North America:
Communism and homosexuality
Left-wing politics
Joe McCarthy
Canadian fruit machine
Measure pupil dilation 1965-1967
Physiological arousal; pupil dilate when seeing person of same-sex = gay
History of perceiving sexual orientation
- Gaydar = gay + radar
Describes alleged ability of gays and lesbians to identify other gays
Berger (1987)
Judgments from thin slices of nonverbal behaviour
No effect
Analyzed data incorrectly
Reanalysis showed significant effects
- Lay beliefs:
i.e., gay or eurotrash?/lesbian or German lady? (LOL, wtf?)
Relevant modalities:
- Clothes/static appearance
Lesbians no larger than straight women
Appearance changes after coming out
Hairstyles
Clothing, makeup
Body image
Fragrances (men)
*Im out and Im proud, then regress; hyper-correct for before
- Vocal cues
Gay/straight men sound different
Gaudio
Linville
Smyth, Jacobs, & Rogers
Why?
Many acoustic studies:
/s/
Lisping? [According to history: free spirited, open to experiences]
Mean pitch
Pitch variability
Word choice
Vowel sounds
Controlling for body size
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Document Summary

Signal detection theory development of radar, sonar, hearing tests. Accuracy = times you correctly heard it (hits) times you thought you heard it (false alarm) 2 (doesn t count for guessing and therefore inflates accuracy) A little more complicated dt = z (h rate) z (fa rate) A = h2 + fa2 + 3 h fa 4 fa h, only if h fa. A = h - h2 + fa fa2, if h < fa. Accuracy = correct recognition false recognition rejection. Response bias = tend to remember things to not seen (+)/not commit unless sure (-) Accuracy = ability to tell if gay or straight. Response bias: tend to think everyone is straight (+)/tend to think everyone is gay (-) Some groups are perceptually obvious: race, sex, age. Know very little about how we process these. May offer insight to processes used to categorize others, generally.

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