PSY100H1 Lecture Notes - Long-Term Memory, Short-Term Memory, Sensory Memory

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Published on 13 Apr 2013
School
UTSG
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Chapter 7 Attention and Memory
Memory the nervous system’s capacity to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge
Attention is selective because it is limited and attention is adaptive
Parallel processing searching for one feature is fast and automatic; effectively blocking
out other features
Serial processing searching for two (or more) features is slow and effortful; you must
examine a target one by one
Selective listening: cocktail party phenomenon
Proximity and loudness influence what you attend to but selective attention determine
which conversations you hear
Shadowing - when a person listens to two different messages at once and only attends to one
of the messages by repeating it out loud
There’s no conscious knowledge about the other message
Filter theory people have a limited capacity for sensory information; screens incoming
information *pays attention to the most important info
Change blindness common failure to notice large changes in environment
Study: participants giving directions to an individual is momentarily blocked with a large
object. During that time, the person receiving the info is switched but due to that
blockage, the participant giving directions doesn’t notice they’re talking to a different
person.
We can attend to a limited amount of information large discrepancies exist in what
most people believe they see and what they actually see
Models of memory:
Encoding phase information acquired and processed into a neural code for the brain
Storage phase retention of coded information (may last a second or a lifetime)
Retrieval phase remembering or recalling stored information when we need it
Modal memory model sensory memory, short term memory, long term memory
Sensory memory temporary memory system, stored briefly for only a fraction of a second
Often not aware that it is operating
Sensory memory persists for about a third of a second then progressively fades
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Allows info to be kept for long enough to connect one image to another so everything
we see is smooth
Short term memory (STM) limited; capacity memory holds info longer than sensory memory
(20-30 secs) unless you actively think about it and rehearse it
Working memory (WM) memory system that combines info from other sources
Lasts less than half a minute without continuous rehearsing
Memory span consists of seven items (+/- two items)
Chunking organizing information into meaningful units to make it easier to remember; the
greater your expertise with the material, the more efficiently you can chunk the information and
retain it
Four components of working memory (WM):
Central executive control system; encodes information from sensory systems and
determines whether it is important to be stored in long term memory
Phonological loop auditory information; active when person tries to remember words by
reading, speaking and repeating
Visuospatial sketchpad visual information object features and where they are located
Episodic buffer holds temporary information about one self, drawing on long term
episodic memory
Long term memory information enters permanent storage through rehearsal
Over learning leads to improved memory
Distributed practice ( multiple sessions overtime) are remembered better than massed
practice (cramming day before)
Maintenance rehearsal repeating an item over and over again
Elaborative rehearsal coding information in more meaningful ways linking it to long
term memory
Memory involves many systems but they encode/ store different types of information in different ways
Implicit memory unconscious memory; memories we acquire without awareness/intention
Like classical conditioning doesn’t require conscious attention ( associating white lab
coat with pain)
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Repetition priming improvement in identifying/processing a stimulus that has been
experienced previously ( __ory) we can identify it as sensory very easily
Explicit memory information we are consciously aware of
Declarative memory knowledge that can be declared (consciously brought to mind)
Episodic memory past experiences including the time and place of the occurrence
(think of when you had a birthday party and what you did)
Semantic memory knowledge of facts independent of personal experience (capital of
france)
Procedural memory motor skills, habits, behaviours we remember without thinking about it
Prospective memory remembering to do something at some time in the future
Automatic happen without conscious awareness/intent (see a cue in the
environment)
Controlled constantly reminding yourself
Mental representations are made through perceptual experiences certain animals have certain
features to identify them by
Craik & lockhard: levels of processing model the more deeply an item is encoded the better it
is remembered
Schema hypothetic cognitive structure that helps us perceive, organize, process, and use
information
New memories can be constructed by filling in holes with existing memories,
overlooking inconsistency and interpret based on past experiences lead to biased
encoding
Network of associations things with related meaning are linked in storage
Each unit of information is a node each node is connected to others (the close the
nodes, the stronger the association)
Spreading activation activating one node increases the likelihood of associated nodes
Retrieval cue anything that helps someone recall information from memory
Encoding specificity principle can recall things better when physical things produce a
sense of familiarity
Goddent & Baddeley: scuba divers that learned a list of words on land would remember
it better when they are on land compared to when they are in water and vice versas.
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Document Summary

Memory the nervous system"s capacity to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge. Attention is selective because it is limited and attention is adaptive. Parallel processing searching for one feature is fast and automatic; effectively blocking out other features. Serial processing searching for two (or more) features is slow and effortful; you must examine a target one by one. Proximity and loudness influence what you attend to but selective attention determine which conversations you hear. Shadowing - when a person listens to two different messages at once and only attends to one of the messages by repeating it out loud. There"s no conscious knowledge about the other message. Filter theory people have a limited capacity for sensory information; screens incoming information *pays attention to the most important info. Change blindness common failure to notice large changes in environment. Study: participants giving directions to an individual is momentarily blocked with a large object.

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