PSY100H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Gay Bar, Bulimia Nervosa, Erving Goffman
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Part 2 of Course
Change of perspective
- Mathew Sheppard went to a gay bar, met two men, kidnapped, tied to a fence
and died a few days later.
- Until now we would not discuss the perceiver’s point of view.
- How do stereotypes emerge?
- How are stereotypes maintained?
- Who is most likely to be prejudiced?
- How has prejudice changed over time?
- All the point of the view of the perceiver.
What are the effects of prejudice?
- How do people cope with it?
- “The lion’s story will never be told as long as the hunter is telling the story”
- What the effects of prejudice are on various kinds of people.
- Possession of a trait/characteristic that is devalued by society
- Stigmatized have a “spoiled identity”
- Are discriminated against.
- Types of Stigma (Goffman, 1963)
- Abominations of body: Things that make you look different, (extremely
overweight, deformity, excessive sweating)
- Blemishes of character: (Dementia, mental illness, anorexia or bulimia, and
can include any kind of personality traits.)
- Tribal Markers: Gender, age, clothing, religion, race. (Separation among
people, on tribe or another)
Males: The new targets?
- Are men being discriminated more frequently?
A Model of Stigma Reactions
- Major and O’Brien, 2005.
- Three sings that cause people to make an identify threat appraisal. (I’m being
- A: Collective Representations: Culture, meta-stereotype (Stereotypes that
people have about other people’s stereotypes), Where are you? Black in
Africa is different then in Canada.
- B: Situational Cues: Cues communicating stigma relevance, from the
- C: Personal: Individual differences in perception and appraisal. (Personality,
self esteem, how do they identify?)
- D: Threat appraisal: Is Stigma relevant? Am I threatened?
- E: Involuntary responses: Anxiety disruption, vigilance.
- F: Voluntary Responses: Coping with threat, blaming discrimination, limit
social comparisons, dis-identification.
- Outcomes: Self-esteem, performance, health.
- Class Example: How do Muslims cope at the airport?
- Devout Muslims man being cautious, avoiding eye contact at the airport.
- A, B, C: Racisms towards Muslims specifically at airports in North America.
Visibly Muslim, Islam-phobic society.
- D: Makes identity threat appraisal.
- E, F: Becoming stressed, avoiding eye contact.
- G: Scared, nervous, stressed, possible poor health outcomes.
- Am I being judged on the group I am identified with?
Blue-eyed people better then brown-eyed people.
Blue-eyed children felt better than brown-eyed children while brown-eyed
children felt deflated.
Children are able to subjectively feel racism.
Children became nasty, discriminatory.
Superior children became even more different then inferior children.
Stigma’s Self-Protective Properties
Stigma & Self-Esteem
- Stigmatized are disadvantaged economically & interpersonally
- Stigma should lead to lower self-esteem:
- Reflected appraisals
- Self-fulfilling Prophecies
- Wrong: Stigmatized have the same or higher SE than non-stigmatized.
- Not true for all groups, African Americans do not suffer from lower self-
esteem than white-Americans.
Crocker & Major, 1989
- Stigma can buffer self-esteem; you can blame stigmas for shortcomings.
- S3 effects of stigma: attributional ambiguity, disidentifications, & in-group
- 1. Attributional Ambiguity
- Blame discrimination vs. blaming self
- Discount negative feedback.
- 2. Dis-identification
- Disengage self-esteem from stereotyped domain.
- A woman who is stigmatized as being poor at math will decide they don’t like
- Value dimensions where in-group fares well.
- 3. In-group comparisons
- Limit comparisons to in-group members
- Segregated environments
- Accurate self-evaluations
- Avoid painful comparisons
Crocker et al., 1991
- Stigmatized can protect self-esteem by attributing negative feedback to
- Method: Blacks become “friends” study with “white student”
- Subjects receive positive vs. negative feedback
- They are seen vs. unseen
- DV: Attributions to discrimination, self-esteem
- Blinds are either up or down.
- The subject either feels they can be seen or cannot be seen by the white
- People who are seen attribute the negative or positive feedback more
- Attributions to discriminations can buffer self-esteem from negative
- People discount feedback and don’t feel so bad after negative events.
- Attributions to discrimination can hurt self-esteem after positive feedback.
- Affirmative Action: can cause negative feelings about getting a job.
Major & Obrien:
- Personal Characteristics:
- Group Identification:
- More likely to see self as target
- Interpret ambiguous cues as stigma-relevant.
- Domain Identification:
- Care about stereotyped domain
- More likely to be affected by identity
Stigma Consciousness (Pinel, 1999):
- Being sensitive to possibility of being evaluated on basis of stigmatized group
- Extent to which one expects to be stereotyped
- Uncle Leo, high stigma consciousness about being Jewish.
Mathew sheppard went to a gay bar, met two men, kidnapped, tied to a fence and died a few days later. Until now we would not discuss the perceiver"s point of view. All the point of the view of the perceiver. What the effects of prejudice are on various kinds of people. The lion"s story will never be told as long as the hunter is telling the story . Possession of a trait/characteristic that is devalued by society. Abominations of body: things that make you look different, (extremely overweight, deformity, excessive sweating) Blemishes of character: (dementia, mental illness, anorexia or bulimia, and can include any kind of personality traits. ) Tribal markers: gender, age, clothing, religion, race. (separation among people, on tribe or another) Three sings that cause people to make an identify threat appraisal. (i"m being discriminated against) B: situational cues: cues communicating stigma relevance, from the environment.