PSY100H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Collectivism, Availability Heuristic, Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence

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1 Nov 2018
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PSY100- Lecture 17- Thinking and Intelligence
Organization of Concepts:
Rule Based Approach:
o List of rules
o Characteristics
Resemblance-based Approach
o Prototype or exemplar
Cultural differences that people tend to use the most
Language and though affect each other
Culture:
Culture influences language and thought
East vs. West
o Western culture: North America, Europe
o Eastern culture: Asia, Middle East
o Focus on individualistic vs collectivistic culture
o In the West, the focus is on the individual (independent sense of self)
Individualistic culture
o In the East, the focus is more on the group and putting the group first
Collectivistic culture
Interdependent sense of self
Cultural Differences: Thinking Styles
Categorization strategies:
o Taxonomic (Western)
Rule based type strategy
People would put images of dog and cat together (they share overlapping
characteristics)
o Thematic (Eastern)
Overall themes
People would put image of dog and bone together
Thinking styles:
o Analytic thinking (Western)
Focus is on objects regardless of their context
Rule based strategy
Objects and their attributes regardless of the situation
o Holistic thinking (Eastern)
You can’t separate an object from it’s context
Looking at the whole picture
Focusing on the object and how it relates to other things that are relevant
to a particular situation
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Using Our Knowledge:
Reasoning:
o Using information at our disposal to figure out if a conclusion is valid or not
Decision Making:
o Choosing among various options
Problem Solving:
o Finding a way around an obstacle
Reasoning:
Deductive reasoning:
o Take some sort of general rule/broad observation and move from the general to
the specific
o Ex. On average, doctors make more money than other people in society so if I
become a doctor then I will make a lot of money
Inductive reasoning:
o Taking a specific example/case and using that to infer a general rule
o Ex. My aunt is a doctor and she makes lots of money so if I become a doctor I
will make a lot of money
Both can have their flaws
They can at time lead to inappropriate conclusions
Decision Making:
Satisficers vs. Maximizers
o Satisficers’ focus is choosing the option that is good enough
o Maximizers focus is choosing the absolute best outcome
o Satisficers score higher in happiness and life satisfaction and lower in depression
and regret
o In some cases maximizers choose the absolute right decision but it comes with
cost
Tend to be perfectionistic
Tend to be worried about comparing their outcomes with others
Heuristics:
o Mental shortcuts that we use to reduce the amount of thinking needed to make a
decision
o If we didn’t rely on them we would be spending so much time making decisions
that we wouldn’t have enough cognitive resources to do other things
o Require minimal cognitive resources
o Allow us to make decisions quickly
o Most of the time they lead to an okay outcome
o Some can lead us astray
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