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Lecture 16

PSY100H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Prototype Theory, Functional Fixedness, Representativeness Heuristic

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

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PSY100H1S: Intro to Psych
Tues Mar 12 2019
how do we organize and represent knowledge?
how do we use knowledge to solve problems and make decisions?
how we do understand “intelligence?”
knowledge categorization
symbolic representations (words)
categorization: process of grouping things based on shared info
concept: mental representation groups objects, events, relations around
common themes
basic level categories
middle of hierarchy…
terms most often used
easiest to pronounce
level at which prototypes exist
level at which most thinking occurs
e.g. furniture —> table —> dinner table, coffee table, etc.
organization of concepts
classical organization: categorized according to certain set of rules/specific
set of features
defining attribute model
determined on all-or-none basis
often make exceptions, though AND some attributes more important
for defining category membership than others, some concepts appear
to be better category members than others
prototype model: categorized according to how closely they resemble
prototype (best example)
exemplar model: all members of category we have encountered form
rule-based (defining attribute)
resemblance based (prototype or exemplar)
cultural differences
taxonomic (western) vs thematic (eastern)
analytic thinking (western) vs holistic thinking (eastern)
also rule based vs. family resemblance
reasoning: using info to determine if conclusion is valid or reasonable
deductive vs inductive
decision making: attempting to select best alternative among several options
problem solving: finding way around obstacle to reach goal
restructuring, overcoming functional fixedness
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