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lecture notes

Course Code
Michael Inzlicht

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PSY 100 lecture #4 Jan 25
Test 1- 65 minutes.
Sensation and Perception
Everyone is biased in their own experiences. Perception is full of
errors. Our perception is largely flawed. What we see is what is there
but a whole bunch is created by us. Inherently subjective.
Sensation: taking in of the energy. Is common.
-Why cant we see the same thing when were looking at the
same thing? Perception is inherently subjective and inherently
flawed. Based on some fact and a lot of interpretation
(guessing, imagination). If were mad/sad/happy, it changes our
perception. It alters our perception. We should have a good
understanding that they are inherently flawed. They are not
always correct.
-Sensation is the stimulation of sense organs. Touch, sounds,
smell, etc.
-Perception: selection (we choose to remember, to ignore, to
never see, etc.), organization (what we say is the most
important, etc.), and interpretation (making some type of
personal interpretation and theyre based on genetics but they
are instantaneously judged in that situation. May be no
knowledge of)
-Sensory receptors: tuned to a particular form of energy.
-Require a minimum amount of energy for activation (=absolute
threshold). Ability to see a candle in a dark, clear night. We can
taste a tea spoon of sugar in a water. Were able to feel rain
drops on our face. It will affect our behavior. We perceive things

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below conscious awareness. We have automatic procedures.
We have individual differences. Some people can smell, taste,
hear, etc. better than others. Absolute threshold: consistency.
The minimum energy to be detected 50% of the time.
-Just noticeable different (DND): The next threshold just
noticeable difference from the absolute threshold. How much
energy you need to recognize that the intensity has increased. If
its really loud in a room already, you wont be able to notice the
noise. Weber fraction. It could be going up or down. Fraction
applies to everyone in the same way. Its incredibly similar to
everyone. Cultural or geographical differences have no effect at
The Visual system
-The most important. More of our brain is dedicated to vision
than to other senses put together. Why is vision so important?
Why is it important than any other sense?
-We evolved our system to be very specific. We only see a bit of
energy that flows all the time. Our naked eyes are not avaiable
to see ultraviolet. We have the visible white spectrum. The peak
of the light- amplitude. We measure the wavelength as well.
Wavelength gives us the color that we see. We see the little
light of the energy. We have adapted to this spectrum that is
most facilitated for our brain. Other species see things in
different wavelength. We could have evolved to see other
Details of the human eye
-Your eye doesn’t see. The brain sees the primary vision
cortex. Light comes in, moves past the pupil and being refracted
by the lens. The pupil stays the same. its the iris that contracts.
The pupil helps to make sure the light goes where its supposed
to go. Make sure the light goes to the fovea (optic disk).
Specialized in seeing fine detail. If light goes to a bent degree,
we will see things blurry. The light might not hit the fovea. Then
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