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Lecture

PSY100H1 Lecture Notes - Neuron, Frontal Lobe, Occipital Lobe


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Components of the Neuron
Å Dendrites: receives information from other neurons
Å Cell body: creates transmitter molecules
Å Axon
Å Myelin part of axon that insulates the nerve cell, speeds up
conduction of nerve messages
Å terminal buttons of the axon release transmitter
Graded Potentials
-stimulation of the nerve membrane
can open ion channels in the
membrane
-NA+ ions flowing in will
depolarize the membrane
(from -70 mV to about -60mV)
-K+ ions flowing out of membrane
will hyperpolarize the membrane
(from -70mV to about -90mV)
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The Action Potential
-graded potential are generated at the dendrites and are conducted along the membrane to
the axon hillock
-if the summated activity at the axon hillock raises the membrane potential past threshold,
an action potential (AP) will occur
-during AP, NA+ ions flow into the cell raising the membrane potential to +40 mV, producing
the spike
-the restoration of the membrane potential to -70 mV is produced by an opening of
channels to K+
-the AP is conducted along the axon toward the terminals
Synaptic Functioning
-Neurotransmitters (NTs) are chemicals stored within vesicles of the presynaptic cell
-released in response to the action potential sweeping along the presynaptic membrane
-transmitter molecules diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind to postsynaptic receptors
-receptor binding opens or closes ion channels
-NA channel opening: Depolarizes the membrane
-K+ channel opening: hyperpolarizes the membrane
-Neuromodulators: indirectly alter the activity of other transmitter substances
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