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PSY100H1 Lecture Notes - Albert Bandura, Social Learning Theory, Personality Psychology

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Michael Inzlicht

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Personality Research
z Personality refers to enduring pattern of thought, feeling, motivation and behaviour that are
expressed in different circumstances
z The aim of personality research is to construct general theories of personality, and assess individual
differences in personality
Psychodynamic Views of Personality
z Freud invoked a role of unconscious processes in the control of behaviour
Based on his observations of clients
Topographical model: argued for 3 levels of consciousness
Conflict occurs between the different aspects of consciousness
Requires compromise formation
z Human behaviour is motivated by two drivers
Libido refers to pleasure seeking and sensuality as well as desire for intercourse
z Libido follows a developmental course during childhood
Stages of development
Fixed progression of change from stage to stage
Notion of fixation at a particular libidinal stage
0-18 mths
2-3 years
Orderliness, cleanliness
4-6 years
Parental identification, oedipal complex, penis envy, castration complex
7-11 years
Sublimation of sexual and aggressive urges
12+ years
Mature sexuality and relationships
Ego Defense Mechanisms
z Defense mechanisms are unconscious mental processes that protect the conscious person from

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Repression: anxiety-evoking thoughts are kept unconscious
Denial: person refuses to recognize reality
Projection: person attributes their own unacceptable impulses to others
Reaction Formation: person converts an unacceptable impulse into the opposite impulse
Sublimination: person converts an unacceptable impulse into a socially acceptable activity
Rationalization: person explains away their actions to reduce anxiety
Displacement: diverting emotional feelings from their original source of a substitute target
Projective Tests
z Projective tests assume that persons presented with a vague stimulus still project their own impulses
and desires into a description of the stimulus
z Rorschach Inkblots
z Thematic Apperception Test
Other Psychoanalytic Theorists
z Anna Freud
z Erik Erikson
z Harry Sullivan
z Contributions
Emphasis on unconscious processes
Identification of defense mechanisms
Importance of childhood experiences in shaping adult personality
z Limitations
Theories are not solidly based on scientific observation
Excessive emphasis on drives such as sex and aggression
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990): Radical Behaviourism
Scientific Analysis of Behavior
behavior, no matter how complex can be investigated, like any other observable phenomena.
Behavior is anything that the organism can be observed doing
Goal is to look at a behavior and its contingencies -- Antecedents of behavior; Response to
antecedents; Consequences of response
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