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Lecture

LEC 10-Personality Research

7 Pages
82 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Personality Research
z Personality refers to enduring pattern of thought, feeling, motivation and behaviour that are
expressed in different circumstances
z The aim of personality research is to construct general theories of personality, and assess individual
differences in personality
Psychodynamic Views of Personality
z Freud invoked a role of unconscious processes in the control of behaviour
Based on his observations of clients
Topographical model: argued for 3 levels of consciousness
Conflict occurs between the different aspects of consciousness
Requires compromise formation
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z Human behaviour is motivated by two drivers
Aggressive
Sexual
Libido refers to pleasure seeking and sensuality as well as desire for intercourse
z Libido follows a developmental course during childhood
Stages of development
Fixed progression of change from stage to stage
Notion of fixation at a particular libidinal stage
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STAGE
AGE
CONFLICTS AND CONCERNS
Oral
0-18 mths
Dependency
Anal
2-3 years
Orderliness, cleanliness
Phallic
4-6 years
Parental identification, oedipal complex, penis envy, castration complex
Latency
7-11 years
Sublimation of sexual and aggressive urges
Genital
12+ years
Mature sexuality and relationships
Ego Defense Mechanisms
z Defense mechanisms are unconscious mental processes that protect the conscious person from
www.notesolution.com
anxiety
Repression: anxiety-evoking thoughts are kept unconscious
Denial: person refuses to recognize reality
Projection: person attributes their own unacceptable impulses to others
Reaction Formation: person converts an unacceptable impulse into the opposite impulse
Sublimination: person converts an unacceptable impulse into a socially acceptable activity
Rationalization: person explains away their actions to reduce anxiety
Displacement: diverting emotional feelings from their original source of a substitute target
Projective Tests
z Projective tests assume that persons presented with a vague stimulus still project their own impulses
and desires into a description of the stimulus
z Rorschach Inkblots
z Thematic Apperception Test
Other Psychoanalytic Theorists
z -XQJ·VDQDO\WLFDOSV\FKRORJ\
z $GOHU·VLQGLYLGXDOSV\FKRORJ\
z Anna Freud
z Erik Erikson
z Harry Sullivan
(YDOXDWLRQRI)UHXG·V&RQWULEXWLRQVWR3HUVRQDOLty Theory
z Contributions
Emphasis on unconscious processes
Identification of defense mechanisms
Importance of childhood experiences in shaping adult personality
z Limitations
Theories are not solidly based on scientific observation
Excessive emphasis on drives such as sex and aggression
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990): Radical Behaviourism
Scientific Analysis of Behavior
behavior, no matter how complex can be investigated, like any other observable phenomena.
Behavior is anything that the organism can be observed doing
Goal is to look at a behavior and its contingencies -- Antecedents of behavior; Response to
antecedents; Consequences of response
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Personality Research z Personality refers to enduring pattern of thought, feeling, motivation and behaviour that are expressed in different circumstances z The aim of personality research is to construct general theories of personality, and assess individual differences in personality Psychodynamic Views of Personality z Freud invoked a role of unconscious processes in the control of behaviour Based on his observations of clients Topographical model: argued for 3 levels of consciousness Conflict occurs between the different aspects of consciousness Requires compromise formation 70:80;0O452039,O40O z Human behaviour is motivated by two drivers Aggressive Sexual Libido refers to pleasure seeking and sensuality as well as desire for intercourse z Libido follows a developmental course during childhood Stages of development Fixed progression of change from stage to stage Notion of fixation at a particular libidinal stage 70:8!8.K480[:,O$9,J08 STAGE AGE CONFLICTS AND CONCERNS Oral 0-18 mths Dependency Anal 2-3 years Orderliness, cleanliness Phallic 4-6 years Parental identification, oedipal complex, penis envy, castration complex Latency 7-11 years Sublimation of sexual and aggressive urges Genital 12+ years Mature sexuality and relationships Ego Defense Mechanisms z Defense mechanisms are unconscious mental processes that protect the conscious person from www.notesolution.com
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