Lecture 2.doc

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11 Apr 2012
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January 17, 2011
Psychology Lecture 2 (Chapter 2)
What makes good psychological research?
-Theoretical framework used
-Predictions can then be made (hypotheses) and tested to show whether true
-Standardized procedure- determine all possible confounds (factors) that can possible effect a
study. Make it equal and fair
-Standardized procedure does not rely on just one study (done in a way that people can replicate it)
Generalizability:
E.g. People are more likely to convict based on graphic autopsy photos
-Also higher level of prejudice among jury as compared to regular citizens
-Sample must be able to be generalized
-External/ecological validity- measuring something real and actual
-Procedure must be sensible and relevant
Objective Measurement:
-Reliability
-Best to have measures that have been tested overtime and is valid
-Must be as valid as possible
Naturalistic Observation:
-We want to be as “removed” as possible and have as little influence on people’s behaviour (in
their natural setting)
-This can be with anyone with anywhere (e.g. if you are viewing children on a playground to see
how they make peer-groups)
Surveys:
-How you ask a question can affect the answer (biased)
-Must be skeptical about results
Case Study:
e.g. Someone with a disease and they’re the only one who has it. Did our treatment work or did
they just get better overtime? We don’t know.
Correlation:
-1 perfectly negatively correlated
+1 perfectly positively correlated
-Cannot tell us about causation! We don’t know if a causes b, or b causes a. This is the directionali-
ty problem
-Confound- anything that somehow interferes with the information and we are unaware/didn’t con-
trol for it
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