Lecture 3.doc

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11 Apr 2012

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January 24, 2011
Lecture 3- PSY100
Components of the Neuron
- The brain makes everything. If it didn’t, we wouldn’t be alive
- There are 2 main types of brain cells (glea and neurons)
- Glea: structural support, transmit information to neurons and other places
- Neurons: brain cells that receive information. Integrate information (send it to the brain, or from
the brain, or from one part of the brain to the other)
- When you learn something new, there are connections (dendrites). If you don’t use a connection-
you lose it.
- Sensory neurons: allows us to hear, see, smell, touch and etc
- Motor neurons: make our motor system work- make us go
- Interneurons: sends information from one part of the brain to the other
- Dendrites: receive info. from others neurons through tiny receptor sites. Think of a lock. Neuro-
transmitter is the key. Dendrites connected to terminal buttons of neurons, sending info to synapse
- Myelin: speeds up conduction of nerve messages. Electrical impulses travel faster when myelin is
- Pain is a reminder to teach us what not to do
- It is believed that learning creates myelinization
- Terminal buttons contain neurotransmitters
Neuron Resting Potentials
- Positive/negative ions outside of membrane
- Cell membrane permeable
- E.g. Like you’re trying to get into a club, sodium trying to go in. Potassium is V.I.P. and can go in
as they please while the rest of us outside waiting to get word (of when to enter)
The Action Potential
- Graded potentials: how many positive and negative signals (summation)
Synaptic Functioning
- Neurotransmitters are stored within the vesicles of the presynaptic cell
- Released in response to action potential sweeping along the presynaptic membrane
- Transmitters diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind to post synaptic receptors
- Dopamine, Serotonin, Acytecholine, Norepinephrine
Details of Synapse
- “Only certain locks take certain keys”
- Re-uptake: reusing the transmitters? (unsure if that’s the word) that did not bind
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