Understanding people's emotion allows for conversations, relationships, and such. Paul Ekman [in
This deception is very useful; it allows us to process information more efficiently
We've talked about top-down processes, their efficiently gains, and accuracy costs
Guiding them through what PROBABLY happened
Another way in which we deceive ourselves (some of the time) is through the use of Heuristics
Stereotypes and social scripts are examples of Heuristics (recall the story from last lecture
about the subway)
More Ways our Brains Deceive US
Went to photocopy something; asked to go in the front of the line. She was in a rush,
and so she asked, "Can I bud in line?" but the people said no. However, when she said,
"can I bud in line? I'm in a rush," people allowed her to go ahead in front of the line. It
makes people behave as though you told them because you were in a rush. The keyword
here is "because"; it suggests that there was a reason.
Ellen Langer: photocopy study
This person is far more likely to be a truck driver than a classics professor
The amount of classics professor is much less than that of truck drivers, therefore it is far
more likely to be a truck driver statistically.
Let me describe someone I know… He's short, slim, and likes to read poetry
Who Is this?
Ignoring Base Rates
Example: doctors often ignore base rates of illnesses when making diagnoses
Investors often ignore base rates of business failure in a sector when making investment
decisions (it sure looks like a goo business plan… )
Making decisions based on the extent to which information seems similar to a category you
have in mind
when you see a person behaving a certain way, you assume they are that type of person
Pretty much everyone talks in hush tone in the library.
Rude behaviour - rude person
Example: when we see a certain kind of behaviour, we look for a representative
explanation, such as the explanation that the person is just that kind of person, ignoring
the ;base rate; represented by the situation's common influence over people.
You were drunk, tired, worried, sick, stressed, etc. not actually because you were
Example: why were you rude to Sally?
Because Sally is a rude person.
Example, now why is Sally rude to you?
Although not usually thought of in these ways, the fundamental attribution error involves this
The Representativeness heuristic:
When it is about the other person, we are less motivated to accurately perceive what they are
doing to us.
The Power of Labels
Tuesday, February 28, 2012