Lecture 6.pdf

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14 Apr 2012
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Understanding people's emotion allows for conversations, relationships, and such. Paul Ekman [in
our textbook]
This deception is very useful; it allows us to process information more efficiently
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We've talked about top-down processes, their efficiently gains, and accuracy costs
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Guiding them through what PROBABLY happened
Another way in which we deceive ourselves (some of the time) is through the use of Heuristics
cognitive shortcuts
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Stereotypes and social scripts are examples of Heuristics (recall the story from last lecture
about the subway)
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Went to photocopy something; asked to go in the front of the line. She was in a rush,
and so she asked, "Can I bud in line?" but the people said no. However, when she said,
"can I bud in line? I'm in a rush," people allowed her to go ahead in front of the line. It
makes people behave as though you told them because you were in a rush. The keyword
here is "because"; it suggests that there was a reason.
Ellen Langer: photocopy study
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Because…
This person is far more likely to be a truck driver than a classics professor
The amount of classics professor is much less than that of truck drivers, therefore it is far
more likely to be a truck driver statistically.
Let me describe someone I know… He's short, slim, and likes to read poetry
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Who Is this?
Ignoring Base Rates
Example: doctors often ignore base rates of illnesses when making diagnoses
Investors often ignore base rates of business failure in a sector when making investment
decisions (it sure looks like a goo business plan… )
Making decisions based on the extent to which information seems similar to a category you
have in mind
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when you see a person behaving a certain way, you assume they are that type of person
Pretty much everyone talks in hush tone in the library.
Rude behaviour - rude person
Example: when we see a certain kind of behaviour, we look for a representative
explanation, such as the explanation that the person is just that kind of person, ignoring
the ;base rate; represented by the situation's common influence over people.
You were drunk, tired, worried, sick, stressed, etc. not actually because you were
rude.
Example: why were you rude to Sally?
Because Sally is a rude person.
Example, now why is Sally rude to you?
Although not usually thought of in these ways, the fundamental attribution error involves this
basic process
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The Representativeness heuristic:
When it is about the other person, we are less motivated to accurately perceive what they are
doing to us.
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The Power of Labels
Lecture 6
Tuesday, February 28, 2012
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