PSY100H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: American Psychiatric Association, Social Anxiety Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder

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Published on 14 Aug 2012
School
UTSG
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
PSY100 Lecture #9 March 26, 2012
Psychological Disorders
Conceptions of Mental Illness
. 24% adults suffer from a disorder and 31% show significant symptoms
What is Mental Illness?
Criteria (for abnormal behaviour):
. Statistical infrequency
. Uncommon in the population
. E.g., hearing voices, thinking you were abducted by a UFO
. However, what about genius/world-class ability/minority views?
. Personal distress
. Produces emotional pain
. However, what about mania (super hyper opposite of depression)/psychopaths (lack of
remorse/distress from external events?
. Violation of social norms
. We need to take into account age/gender/culture/situation/current social trends to determine
the broken norms
. People show strong disapproval when norms are broken
. Disability/dysfunction/maladaptive behaviour
. Difficult to function in everyday life
. However, what about laziness or being sick of your job (the illness varies on a degree)?
. All four exist together (from normal to abnormal) and a combination of all should be considered
. Maladaptive behaviour is more focused on to identify whether or not it is a disorder
. Certain conditions are culture-bound (specific to one or more societies)
DSM-IV-TR
. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
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. Controlled by American Psychiatric Association (APA) which creates criteria for mental disorders
. Diagnostic systems help therapist to:
. Defines/pinpoints people’s psychological problems
. Research ways to offer best type of treatment
. Communicate with others about the disorder
. DSM contains a multi-axial system:
. Axis I
. Clinical disorders
. Axis II
. Personality disorders and mental retardation
. Axis III-IV
. Supplemental info (general medical condition, psychosocial/environmental problems, global
assessment of functioning on a 1 (want to suicide) -100 (productive/happy) scale)
Anxiety Disorders
. Characterized by excessive anxiety in the absence of real/true danger
. +1-4 people will develop at some point
Types
. Phobia
. Intense fear of an object/situation out of proportion to actual threat
. Specific phobias
. Intense fear of objects/places/situations out of proportion to actual threat
. Social Phobia (social anxiety disorder)
. Fear of public appearances where embarrassment/humiliation is possible
. Generalized anxiety disorder
. Continual feelings of worry/anxiety/physical tension/irritability (can take up 60% of each day)
. Called free-floating/nonspecific anxiety as well
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. Panic disorder
. Repeated and unexpected panic attacks
. Agoraphobia
. Fear of being in a place/situation from which escape is difficult/embarrassing/help is
unavailable in the event of a panic attack
. Avoidance of social situations/open spaces and might become housebound
. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
. Repeated and lengthy (> 1 hour/day) immersion in obsessions & compulsions
. Obsessions
. Persistent ideas/thoughts/impulses that are unwanted/inappropriate/cause distress
. What a person might do/have done
. Compulsions
. Behaviours associated with thoughts (repetitive actions to avoid some
outcome/reduce anxiety)
. Impulsions (do something over and over again because you like doing it)
. People with OCD realize irrationality, but experience anxiety if they don’t do it)
Explanations
. Psychological
. Faulty cognitions
. Interpreting ambiguous situations as threatening
. Focusing much attention on the threats
. Maladaptive learning
. Classically conditioned anxiety to some behaviour
. Operant conditioning (negative reinforcement) keeps it going
. Learn it through observational learning
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Document Summary

24% adults suffer from a disorder and 31% show significant symptoms. E. g. , hearing voices, thinking you were abducted by a ufo. We need to take into account age/gender/culture/situation/current social trends to determine the broken norms. People show strong disapproval when norms are broken. All four exist together (from normal to abnormal) and a combination of all should be considered. Maladaptive behaviour is more focused on to identify whether or not it is a disorder. Certain conditions are culture-bound (specific to one or more societies) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (dsm) Controlled by american psychiatric association (apa) which creates criteria for mental disorders. Research ways to offer best type of treatment. Supplemental info (general medical condition, psychosocial/environmental problems, global assessment of functioning on a 1 (want to suicide) -100 (productive/happy) scale) Characterized by excessive anxiety in the absence of real/true danger. Intense fear of an object/situation out of proportion to actual threat.

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