PSY100H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Normative Social Influence, Stanford Prison Experiment, Fundamental Attribution Error

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14 Aug 2012
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PSY100 Lecture #8 March 12, 2012
Social Psychology
. The study of how people influence other people (behaviour, beliefs and attitudes)
Self-Schemas
. Frameworks we have when thinking about ourselves (memories, beliefs, and generalizations)
. Help us understand the world
Functions of this are:
. Reflect what we care about
. Guide our perception, attention, and memories
. Influence our impressions of others
The Self and Culture
. Individualistic cultures
. Autonomy and self-reliance
. Western cultures (ex. USA, Australia, Great Britain, Canada, and the Netherlands)
. Independent self-concepts (ex. Emotions you feel happy/shy)
. Collectivistic cultures
. Value social harmony and cooperation
. Eastern cultures (ex. Venezuela, Columbia, Pakistan, Peru, Taiwan, and China)
. Have interdependent self-concepts (ex. Social standing son/student)
Cultural Conceptions of Self
. Independent view of self when you are separated from everyone around you
. Interdependent view of self when you overlap over everyone around you
. Regardless of how opposite these views are, these are simply a gradient of conceptions of self
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The Self
. Self-awareness
. Thinking about self (our deeds, what we know, etc.)
. This leads people to act in line with our values and beliefs
. Frontal lobes
. Self-esteem
. The evaluation of thoughts from self-awareness
. Many ways of making high self-esteem
. “Better-than-average” effect
. Evaluates oneself better than average
. Self-serving bias
. Crediting yourself for success and blame other situations for failures
Attributions
. Process of assigning causes to behaviour (ex. Crush looks at you and you instill a cause of love)
. Answers to “why” a person acted a certain way or why an event occurred
. Generating this to understand/predict/control our environments
. Types of attribution:
. Personal (dispositional) attributions
. Explanation that refer to internal/enduring characteristics (personality traits, attitudes,
intelligence); ex. he’s a jerk
. Situational attributions
. Explanation that refer to external/outside influences; ex. didn’t see you or kids
screaming in the back
. Errors of attribution:
. Fundamental attribution error (FAE)
. Tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences on people’s behaviour
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. Actor/observer discrepancy
. We make FAE for others, but focus on situational influence when making attributions
for ourselves
. Easterners more likely to take situational elements, but still favour personal over situational
information
Social Influence
. Conformity
. People changing behaviour because of real/imagined group influences in line with norms
. Social norms are expected standards of conduct
. Types of conformity:
. Informational social influence (Sherif)
. Case of dot of light 15 feet away in dark room
. Autokinetic effect (unmoving object looks like it is moving) with the light
. Participants judged both alone and in groups the movement of the light
. When in group, the people used the group to state an answer (even if they
were originally right or originally said something different)
. Normative social influence (Asch)
. 5 experiment helpers and one real participant
. Clear correct answer is in face
. Have the helpers respond first
. Had the helpers soon respond blatantly wrong
. 75% conformed while only 25% stuck to what they believed
. When it was private, the participants privately wrote down their answers and
almost no one conformed
Deindividuation
. Low self-awareness where people lose individuality and fail to attend to personal standards
. Engage in uncharacteristic behaviour
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Document Summary

The study of how people influence other people (behaviour, beliefs and attitudes) Frameworks we have when thinking about ourselves (memories, beliefs, and generalizations) Usa, australia, great britain, canada, and the netherlands) Independent view of self when you are separated from everyone around you. Interdependent view of self when you overlap over everyone around you. Regardless of how opposite these views are, these are simply a gradient of conceptions of self. Thinking about self (our deeds, what we know, etc. ) This leads people to act in line with our values and beliefs. Crediting yourself for success and blame other situations for failures. Crush looks at you and you instill a cause of love) Answers to why a person acted a certain way or why an event occurred. Explanation that refer to internal/enduring characteristics (personality traits, attitudes, intelligence); ex. he"s a jerk. Explanation that refer to external/outside influences; ex. didn"t see you or kids screaming in the back.

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