PSY100H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Conjoined Twins, Prefrontal Cortex, Motor Planning

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9 Aug 2016
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PSY 100 Week 3
Behavior is Determined by Multiple Factors 1: Biological Foundations
Mnemonics: Tricks to help you remember things
-Behavior is exceedingly complex
-Single-cause explanations may be accurate, but they are generally always
incomplete
-Behavior is governed by a complex network of interacting factors (multifactorial
causation):
Heredity: genetic makeup
Biology: nervous system
Environment: current circumstances, past experiences
Culture: where you grow up, where you are now
The Nervous System
-The body’s electrochemical communication circuitry
-Central nervous system (CNS) (50 million nerve cells in the brain 99%)
-Peripheral nervous system. (PNS)
Somatic nervous system
Autonomic nervous system
Sympathetic nervous system
Parasympathetic nervous system
Neurons
-The basic unit of the nervous system
-Operate through electrical impulses
-Communicate with other neurons through chemical signals
Types of Neurons:
-Sensory neurons (afferent neurons)
-Motor neurons (efferent neurons)
-Interneurons
Dendrites: receive the electrochemical signals from other neurons
Cell body: integrates all the information
Axon: transmits/moves the signal
Terminal buttons (axon terminals): releases the neurotransmitters and passes it along
through the synapse to the connecting neuron
Synapse: connects the neurons and releases the signal
Myelin Sheath: waxy/fatty substances that surrounds the axon, makes the signal move
faster through the axon
When Do Neurons Fire
-Excitatory signals: increase the likelihood that the neuron will fire (less negative,
more positive)
-Inhibitory signals: decrease the likelihood that the neuron will fire
-They do this be affecting the polarization of the cell
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