PSY100H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Developmental Disorder, Heredity, Echolalia

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9 Aug 2016
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PSY 100 Week 4 Continued
Negative Symptoms
Deficits in functioning, includes behaviours such as:
- Isolation, withdrawal
- Apathy
- Blunted emotion
- Slowed monotonous speech and movement
- More difficult (don’t respond to treatment in the same way) to treat than positive
symptoms (with pills), different underlying causes
Causes
- Genetic component/ inherited from parents
- Environmental stress
- Primarily a brain disorder, enlarged ventricles (less brain matter)
Dissociative Identity Disorder
- Controversial disorder of a broader group of dissociative disorders
- Suggested it should be a type of post-traumatic stress disorder
Personality Disorders
- Characterized by interacting with the world in maladaptive and inflexible ways,
over a long period of time, resulting in social/work problems and personal distress
- Usually last throughout the lifespan with no expectation of significant change
(Axis 2)
Divided into three groups:
Odd or Eccentric Behaviour
Dramatic, Emotional or Erratic Behaviour
Anxious or Fearful Behaviour
Borderline Personality Disorder: characterized by disturbances in identity, affect, and
impulse control. Borderline of normal and abnormal. Must have certain number of
symptoms to be diagnosed with BPD
Identity: lack a strong sense of self, fear abandonment/being alone, and can be
very manipulative in their attempt to control relationships
Affect: profound emotional instability
Impulsivity: self mutilation most common, also sexual promiscuity, physical
fighting, binge eating and purging
Causes (BPD)
- Biological factors: genetics, serotonin
- Environmental factors: trauma, abuse, relationship with caregivers
Anti-social personality disorder (APD)
- Characterized by lack of empathy and remorse
- More common in men than women
- Psychopaths: represent the most extreme version of APD, often charming and
rational, insincere, unsocial, incapable of love, lacking insight, shameless
Causes:
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PSY 100 Week 4 Continued
- Biological factors: lower levels of arousal, lack of fear/anxiety, amygdala
abnormalities, and deficits in frontal lobe functioning. Genetics may be more
important for psychopathy than other forms of the disorder
- Situational/Environmental factors: low socio-economic status, dysfunctional
families, child abuse
Childhood Disorders
Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence
- Very wide-ranging
- Need to be considered within the context of normal childhood development
- Assessment can be challenging (ex: selective mutism)
Autism
- Is a developmental disorder involving deficits in social interaction, impaired
communication and restricted interests. Is there an autism epidemic?
- Asperger’s syndrome: is a form of autism in which children have deficits in social
interaction, but don’t show the same impairments in linguistic or cognitive
development.
Core Symptoms
1. Unaware of others: lack of eye contact, smiling
2. Deficits in communication: echolalia (repetition), pronoun reversal
3. Restricted activities and interests: repetitive play and behaviour. Any changes to
their routine or settings can be extremely upsetting
Causes:
- Primarily biological: heredity component
- Pre-natal/neo-natal (before/after birth) events that may result in brain dysfunction
–over/undergrowth pattern in brain development
- Promising new research: oxytocin
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
- Is characterized by restless, inattentive, and impulsive behaviours
- Behavioural profiles and causes may vary greatly
- Biological factors: connection between frontal lobe and limbic system, abnormal
activation of prefrontal regions, basal ganglia
- 30-80% of children diagnosed with ADHD continue to show symptoms in
adulthood and may lead to academic and employment struggles
DSM 5: Two New Disorders (diagnosed in childhood)
- Social communication disorder (SCD): characterized by a persistent difficulty
with verbal and non-verbal communication that cannot be explained by low
cognitive ability. The child’s acquisition and use of spoken and written language
is problematic, and responses in conversation are often difficult
- Disruptive mood deregulation disorder (DMDD): characterized by severe and
reoccurring temper outbursts that are grossly out of proportion to the situation in
intensity or duration. The outbursts occur, on average, three or more times each
week for a year or more.
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