PSY100H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Social Loafing, Social Influence, Smoke-Filled Room

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19 Nov 2012
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PSY100 - Social Psychology Part II Escara Janes
Implicit and Explicit prejudice : attitudes that we are not consciously aware of and
automatically formed over time
Implicit not consciously aware of
Explicit prejudice attitudes that we can self-report
The Shooter Task: huge influx in implicit prejudice
Are these people racist?
1999 4 police officer shot him down social psychologists wanted to research it
in the words of the police officers (the book) clear description man fit the
description of a serial rapist just standing there
officers brought to trial black community angry are they just racist?
Shooter task implicit measure of prejudice: participants have the choice to shoot or
not to shoot when they see a person (holding guns or wallets)
The amount of bias you show vs. armed black targets is not predicted by how
prejudice you are predicted by knowledge/awareness of those stereotypes
Ingroups vs. outgroups
Ingroups any social group you’re a member of
Outgroup everybody else (us vs. them)
Ingroup favouritism: prefer members of ingroup, if divided into 2 groups randomly you
still favourite your group vs. other group
Doesn’t mean your hostile to members of an outgroup
Ingroup fav. happens automatically without reason
Outgroup hostility competing with other members
members of outgroup all the same; ingroups see variation and individuals
Different reasons: more familiar with ingroup, know everyone’s indiv. traits and
characteristics, focus on differences between indiv.
Outgroup their just different
Ways to reduce prejudice? increasing contact between members of diff. racial groups
Study: went to summer camp 2 diff. groups on opposite sides of the lake no existing
friendship
Phase 1: formed friends, learned other groups existence did many competitions
got really nasty and insulting towards other groups
Created prejudice and hostility see if they could get this to go away through phase 2
Phase 2: still fighting, contact not enough give them shared superordinate goals
had to work together to get some type of award required 2 groups to come and work
together
Cooperation reduced hostility and reduced prejudice
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Social influence:
Influence we have on other people and influence they have on us
Empty gym running on treadmill perform better with people around you or alone, other
people are around us we run longer and faster
Why does the presence of others help our performance and hurt/hinder our performance
social facilitation: presence of others increases arousal lead to better performance on
certain tasks and can hinder performance on others
Arousal facilitates (helps) performance of accessible, dominant behaviours: simple, well
learned, highly practiced behaviours
Arousal inhibits (hinders) performance of less accessible, non-dominant behaviours:
complex, new, unpracticed
Social loafing: people don’t work as hard in groups vs. when their alone
Effort reduced in condition with multiple people reduces motivation to try so hard
Effects reduced if their individual performance may be being monitored
Social norms:
General consensus of thoughts, feelings, behaviours in society that are seen as “right” and
“correct”
Expected standards of conduct influence behaviour
Norms throughout diff. cultures vary
Conformity: altering of one’s opinions/behaviours to match those of others of to match social
norms
Behaving in a way because other people are doing it
Example: in an elevator one is turned around in elevator and others follow
Sherif’s studies using autokinetic effect – moving speck of light in the dark wide
range of answers when people alone vs. group guessing standard follow each
other and exhibit conformity
Asch’s conformity: line judgment studies – people start to question own type of
perception
*important: unanimity of confederates 1 confederate says B enough for you to not
conform
public conformity go along even if not correct answer get along with people
obedience to authority: people with legitimate authority should be obeyed police, parents,
profs etc.
norm exerts effects on behav. because it is internal
65% of people carried on with experiment
obedience reduced if could see person receiving shock norm of not harming others
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