Females" tendency to respond to stress by protecting and caring for their offspring, as well as by forming alliances with social groups. Heart disease- stress and negative emotions (hostility) can lead to unhealthy behaviours (smoking, overeating), and direct wear-and-tear on the heart. Emotional-focused coping: attempts to prevent an emotional response to the stressor. More likely when the stressors are perceived as uncontrollable and when stress levels are high. Problem focused coping- attempts to deal directly with the stressor to solve the problem. Eg generating alternative solutions and choosing from among them. View threats as challenges or opportunities for growth, and. Hardiness is closely related to resiliency (ability to cope with stress, return to normal state of function) Tangible support: providing help, taking on some of the responsibilities of the person. Information support: telling the person what to do, offering advice. Esteem support: telling the person you believe in them, building their confidence.