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Lecture 10

PSY210H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Psychopathology, Flowchart, Long-Term Memory


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY210H1
Professor
Vervake
Lecture
10

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March 28, 2011
Cognitive Development: The Information Processing approach
Main criticisms of Piaget’s ideas about concrete operational stage – he
underestimates child’s perspective’ taking ability in the preoperational and
sensory motor stages
Piaget’s mountain tasks uses familiar toys rather than the mountain as
landmarks, three years olds can take on the doll’s perspective
Two year-olds will turn a picture and show it to you while talking
about it to you demonstrates that they realize your perspective is
different from theirs
18-month-olds can point to an item the adult isn’t looking at to draw
the adult’s attention to it – also requires sense of difference between
baby’s perspective and adult’s
18-month-olds also understand people’s desires are different –
goldfish and broccoli
4 year-olds use simpler speech when talking to a two year old as
opposed to another 4 year-old shows understanding of different
perspective
even 2-year-olds talk to infant siblings differently than adults
understand that their perspective, infant perspective, and adult
perspectives are different
contra-Piaget evidence for sophisticated perspective-taking abilities
while still clearly in preoperational period, and some are found in
sensorimotor period
Darwin/Vygotsky criticizing Piaget mind-to-mind connections are at
least as important as mind-to-world connections likely an innate
adaptive ability to pick up on other people’s mental states
Preoperational symbolic ability
o Judy DeLoache
o Compare 18-month-olds and 3-year-olds on two tasks hide
and seek game and scale object task
o Hide and seek game room with a giant Snoopy in it. Get kid to
close eyes. Tell kid you’re hiding big Snoopy. You have a small-
scale diorama of the room with a little Snoopy in it, and show
the kid in the little room where Snoopy is in the big room.
o 18-30 months kids can’t find Snoopy in big room
o indicates that a lot of tactics used in criminal investigations
should be ditched ask a 2 year-old to show you on a doll
where the man touched them they don’t understand, this
shouldn’t count as evidence
o any representational object has two aspects little Snoopy is a
cute little toy as well as a representation of big Snoopy have
to be able to keep these two aspects instinct

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o Scale object task 18-30 month-olds bring kid into room with
regular scale objects, let kid play. Take kid out. Replace
furniture and what not with small-scale versions of the same
things tiny lamps, tiny chairs, and see if they notice the
difference. 50% of kids try to use teeny objects like regular
ones try to sit on the microscopic chair! Scale model triggers
planning what to do with object and visual representation
o Knock-knock jokes yahoo
o Aspects are patterns of salience we can predict that if we
alter the salience of the representational object we can affect
the success rate of these tasks
o Replace diorama with flat 2-D picture of room, representation
of the room, makes representation of room less salient
predicts that younger kids can solve Snoopy task
o Children as young as 29 months are able to solve the task with
the picture
o What if we do the opposite and make the diorama more
salient? Have kids play with little Snoopy a lot much older
kids now have a harder time with the problem because little
Snoopy becomes more of a toy and less of a representation
o Sophistication much earlier than Piaget thought children can
reliably solve the scale-object and Snoopy task - means they
are getting good at levels of identity
o Okay, so little kids can’t handle taxonomic tasks, but how
important is this on the savannah? Perspective shifting seems
more important from an evolutionary perspective
o Nine dot problem when people say you are cheating by going
outside the box, they are imposing a pattern of salience that
suggest the lines have to be in the box
o To solve problem, salience pattern has to be broken up, aspect
shifting hard even for adults! Making one aspect more salient
skews perspective
Two groups of people one using pliers for plier-like
things, the other doing some random task
Then you present both groups two-string task and give
both groups pliers. Tell them the pliers will help them
solve the task. People who have been using the pliers as
pliers will find it much harder to use them in any other
way. This is much like the Snoopy task pliers become
too much like pliers so you can’t see them as a
deadweight
o Young children succeed in ways that are very similar to us, we
also fail in ways that are very similar to them a lot more
continuity between kids and adults then Piaget thought
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o “kids are smarter than Piaget realized, adults are stupider”
o earlier and earlier on much more sophistication than Piaget
realized
final stage of Piagetian development formal operations
o most important limitation of concrete operational period were
that operations were restricted to the concrete. Concrete
operational child doesn’t really deal with possibility/what’s
hypothetical vs. reality. Start with actualities and tentatively
makes conjectures about what’s possible.
o Hypothetical model of deductive reasoning - formal
operational child starts with various possibilities, makes
logical deductions about what would be possible if these
deductions were true if A were true, this is the case, if B were
true, this is the case, if C were true, this is the case tests
against actuality, inference to the best explanation
o Pendulum what determines frequency of oscillation?
Formal operational child will consider various
possibilities as to cause, will control for possible
confounding variables length of string, heaviness of
string, force with which it is pushed
Concrete operational child will do some testing but will
not systematically lay out possibilities, nor use
deduction in order to figure out how to systematically
constrain variables. Results in inappropriate
conclusions as a result of not de-confounding variables.
o Reasoning problems are adults actually so good at this?
o Wason selection task
Four cards E, K, 4, 7
Name which cards need to be turned over to confirm
rule that if there’s a vowel on one side, there’s an even
number on the other
E and 7 most people say E 4, but 4 doesn’t prove
anything
Most participants of psych experiments are students
If you change EK47 to “drinking a beer,” “drinking a
coke,” “22,” and “16,” the answer becomes obvious – to
prove that everyone’s drinking legally, you only need to
flip over “drinking a beer” and “16” – you don’t care
what the 22-year-old is doing
Are we reeeeally in the formal operations period, as adults? We’re
failing at concrete operational tasks, here
o Cognition isn’t organized just to pursue truth, like Piaget said,
but relevance of subject in cognition
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