Lecture slides

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Published on 28 Jun 2011
School
UTSG
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY220H1
Professor
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THE ALTRUISM CONTROVERSY
Is there such thing astrue altruism?
Why do people help?
1. learning
2. arousal
3. norms
1. Behaviourism: Helping is the by-product of the
individual’s conditioning history. “altruism vs.
prosocial behavior
2. Arousal model:
Cialdini et al. (1987)negative state relief model:
1. arousal
2. labeling that arousal with a particular emotion
3. the label thats generated is cued by situational
features
Cialdini et al. (1987) found that people are less likely
to help someone if immediately before the
opportunity to help they receive praise or money, or if
people are led to believe that helping does not
improve mood.
www.notesolution.com
Does Cialdini believe in pure altruism?
vs.
Batson (1991)empathy-altruism hypothesis”
1. negative state relief does occur, but:
2. so can perspective-taking, which leads to
“empathic concern”
3. there are individual differences: for a certain
(significant) subset of subjects, receiving
rewards before the helping opportunity did not
diminish their likelihood of helping.
Batson (1981)
-Upon arrival, Ps told that upcoming study involves
peoples task performance under unpleasant
conditions. One of the Ps will perform a task while
receiving mild electric shocks, the other will observe.
-Lots drawn (actually rigged) – you win, other
“subject (actually a confederate) loses, gets hooked
up to a scary machine.
-After receiving severaltrial shocks, “Elaine”
squirms with pain, and tells the experimenter about a
frightening childhood experience when she was
thrown from a horse against an electric fence.
www.notesolution.com
-Its more unpleasant for her than for the average
person, but shes willing to go on.
-Then: Experimenter has the bright idea: (addressing
confederate)Maybe since your case is unusual, it
would be better for you to trade places with the other
subject?”
-SO: Would subjects be willing to suffer in place of
someone else?
One independent variable: Ease of escape from
watching):
"Although the worker will be completing
between two and ten trials, it will be necessary
for the observer to observe only the first two."
vs.
"The worker will be completing
between two and ten trials, all of which the observer
will observe."
All subjects then learned that Elaine
www.notesolution.com

Document Summary

Why do people help: learning, arousal, norms, behaviourism: helping is the by-product of the individual"s conditioning history. Cialdini et al. (1987) negative state relief model : arousal, labeling that arousal with a particular emotion, the label that"s generated is cued by situational features. Cialdini et al. (1987) found that people are less likely to help someone if immediately before the opportunity to help they receive praise or money, or if people are led to believe that helping does not improve mood. www. notesolution. com. Batson (1991) empathy-altruism hypothesis : negative state relief does occur, but, so can perspective-taking, which leads to. Empathic concern : there are individual differences: for a certain (significant) subset of subjects, receiving rewards before the helping opportunity did not diminish their likelihood of helping. Upon arrival, ps told that upcoming study involves people"s task performance under unpleasant conditions. One of the ps will perform a task while receiving mild electric shocks, the other will observe.