PSY220H1 Lecture 1: Lecture 1

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Published on 13 Sep 2018
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PSY220: Lecture 1
Social Psychology
Social psychology: study of reciprocal influence of the individual on his or her owns social environment
Has its foothold in abstract theory and concrete practice o it is both application and theory (eng vs
physics)
Deals with probabilities, likelihood and correlations rather absolute laws
Can often be compared with folk wisdom (my grandma can tell you that)
Social Facilitation
Social facilitation: the tendency for people to perform differently when in the presence of others than when
alone
Several different theories and experiments to show why SF happens
Zajonc said the presence of others increases arousal and arousal energizes you and facilitates the most
dominant response
Behaviour that comes very quickly to you
o Conclusion; audience should improve your performance on task that are easy for you and hamper your
performance on task more difficult for you
Cottrell said the audience must be able to judge you or can judge you or else there is no added facilitation
Baron said humans/audience are a distraction and all distractions (noise, smell, etc.) can help easy tasks and
hinder harder tasks
Summary: for Zajonc, Cottrell social facilitation IS SOCIAL but for baron is not. No Zajonc the mere
presence of an audience is sufficient for while for Cottrell and Baron is it NOT
Social Loafing
While social facilitation is arousal, conversely social loafing is relaxation
o the concept that people are prone to exert less effort on a task if they are in a group versus when they
work alone
Ringlemann tested social loafing (see exp)
o The problem with Ringlemann's findings is it contradicts what Zajonc said; rope pulling is easy thus an
audience should INCREASE your rope pulling abilities yet the results showed the opposite?
o Ringlemanns experiment proved social facilitation does occur among bigger groups
So now we want to why; there are 2 hypotheses
o Groups are less coordinated (omg rope pulling stop stepping on my feet!)
o People try less hard in groups (well like nobody knows if I’m singing in the choir so ill lip synch)
Latane experiment answered this questions; people try less hard in groups
Soln. to social loafing:
o Identifiability
o Importance of task
o Own efforts necessary for success of the group
o Threat f punishment
o Small groups
o Group cohesiveness
Karau & Williams gave the collective-effort model:
People seek to optimize the ratio between their input and the groups output
IOW people are not entirely lazy but also not entirely concerned with top performance (you want a fine in-
between)
Groups
Stoner (1961) suggested risky shift: people in groups tend to make less conservative decisions
Later evidence suggested opposite
Group polarization effects: group discussion amplifies initial group inclinations whether risky or
conservative; IOW - whatever the group KINDA felt before will be amplified after talking with group
Three things contribute to group polarization effects:
Greater # of arguments in favour of one position
Informational influence: relying on others to increase confidence in own opinion
Social categorization; clear boundaries between in group and out group
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Document Summary

No zajonc the mere presence of an audience is sufficient for while for cottrell and baron is it not. Iow people are not entirely lazy but also not entirely concerned with top performance (you want a fine in- between) If there are two experiments and one stays to continue and another says stop the obedience went down to zero. Loud as they could: told them if they were in teams or not, each subjects were told they are put in separate rooms to eliminate the less coordinated hypothesis . Replicated asche longest line exp: nobody broke bubble, somebody broke bubble, somebody had poor eye sight (reported right line) Children reeled better in the presence of others. Social facilitation increases productivity (or so he said) Cockroaches did better on easy maze when they could see audience and did worse on hard maze when they could see the audience.

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