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Lecture

Chapter 10 notse

10 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY220H1
Professor
Jennifer Fortune

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Chapter 10
Group refers to two or more people who are interacting and/or influencing one
another
Social facilitation
oWhen people are in group they tend to perform better on simple task and
poorly perform on complex tasks
Results revealed were contradictory so they examined the complexity
of the tasks performed
oAssociated with physiological arousal which can either increase or decrease
performance depending on the complexity
Social loafing
oPeople slack off in groups
oAssociated with relaxation or reduced motivation
Participants cheered loudest when they thought they were
alone, whereas they cheered 82% as intensely when they
believed one other person was cheering and only 74% as
intensely when they believed five others were also cheering
When social loafing doesnt occur:
oIndividual anonymity if people think that their
performance within the group will be identifiable
oReal-life groups whose members consider the groups
goals to be worthwhile and believe the group is making
a valuable contribution
oCohesiveness and attractiveness of the group itself
because the individuals motivation to enhance their
group is increased
oMen are more likely to exhibit social loafing than females because females
are more group-oriented and more concerned about collective
outcomes than are men who tend to be more individualistic in their
orientation
oSocial loafing is also more common in western cultures than collectivist
cultures like China
Deindividuation
www.notesolution.com
oA psychological state in which people lose their sense of personal identity and
feel immersed in a group
When people are deindividuated they are more likely to engage
in socially undesirable behaviour
oPerspectives of deindividuation
Weakens peoples inhibitions against performing harmful or socially
disapproved actions
Heightens peoples responsiveness to external cues which may be
either negative or positive
Increases peoples adherence to norms that emerge in a group
It was found that children were more likely to break the rules
when they were anonymous rather than nonanonymous and
when they were in a group rather than alone
oEssentially when they were in a group and didnt give
their names the kids took more candy and money on
Halloween
Prisoners simulation
oThe guards were more cruel and violent when they had
sunglasses and had no name tag
Deindividuation (no nametags) led to more aggression in the
KKK cloak condition (negative cue) but to less aggression in
the nursing (positive cue) uniform condition
oTherefore deindividuated participants responded to
either more negatively or more positively than
identifiable participants
Mob violence
Decision making in groups
Groupthink
oIs a way of thinking that can occur in decision-making groups, when pressure
to agree leads to biased appraisal of options and poor decisions
Factors contributing to group think are
1.Group cohesiveness combined strength of all forces
acting on members of a group to remain in the group
www.notesolution.com
2.Directive leader a leader that openly expresses their
own opinions in which others tend to support regardless
of it being wrong
Since members think that others agree as well
3.High stress when groups face external threats or
under time pressures
Symptoms of groupthink
1. Illusion of invulnerability (A) (B)
2.Rationalization of warnings (A)
3.Unquestioned belief in the inherent morality of the
group
4.Stereotyped views of enemy leaders (B)
5.Pressure on group members who challenge the
consensus
6.Self-censorship of misgivings, questions, and
counterarguments (C)
7. Illusion of unanimity (C)
8.Emergence of self-appointed mindguards
Walkerton outbreak involves #1,2,3,5,7
oAvoid groupthink by
1.The leader should be nondirective and allow other group
members to express their opinions before starting his or
her view
2.Norm of openness where all people should give input
and challenge each other
3.People from outside the group should be involved in the
decision-making process
Found that highly cohesive groups discourage dissent and
produce more confident decisions as predicted by Janis but also
that members of cohesive groups report less self-censorship,
which is inconsistent with Janis prediction
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 10 Group refers to two or more people who are interacting andor influencing one another Social facilitation o When people are in group they tend to perform better on simple task and poorly perform on complex tasks Results revealed were contradictory so they examined the complexity of the tasks performed o Associated with physiological arousal which can either increase or decrease performance depending on the complexity Social loafing o People slack off in groups o Associated with relaxation or reduced motivation Participants cheered loudest when they thought they were alone, whereas they cheered 82% as intensely when they believed one other person was cheering and only 74% as intensely when they believed five others were also cheering When social loafing doesnt occur: o Individual anonymity if people think that their performance within the group will be identifiable o Real-life groups whose members consider the groups goals to be worthwhile and believe the group is making a valuable contribution o Cohesiveness and attractiveness of the group itself because the individuals motivation to enhance their group is increased o Men are more likely to exhibit social loafing than females because females are more group-oriented and more concerned about collective outcomes than are men who tend to be more individualistic in their orientation o Social loafing is also more common in western cultures than collectivist cultures like China Deindividuation www.notesolution.com
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