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Lecture

Lecture 3


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY230H1
Professor
Maja Djikic

Page:
of 3
PSY230 Sept 28, Notes
Horney: studied psychology of women,
Historically women had options available such as being a mother, domestic help, being a nun or working
in prostitution, they were not legal persons
Psyche of women and of men
1885 Horney is born, very devout father and mother who is ten years younger than father and unhappy,
wants children to take sides, she was the second child, rejected her father’s religious ideals
Could not go to university, eventually universities allowed women, accepted in 1906
Works in hospital and does psychoanalysis for poor
Moves to USA later found psycho analytical society
1910-1917: depressed, why? Went to Karl Abraham
Freud: women are passive and can only marry up
Abraham: believes females they are castrated, vagina is a wound, wants gift of penis from father, after
latency period directs that wish toward another man, menstrual blood is a symbol of castration
Women who reject femininity become lesbians or intellectuals
Horney dissents from Abraham
Horney replies that women want access to things that men have such as an income
Freud: women Freud: women have no moral acquisition except through father, Horney replies that
psychoanalysts views about women’s penis envy are little boys’ thoughts about women
Men envious of child-mother relationship, breastfeeding
Flight from Womanhood (1926)
Point of not being feminine, girls exposed to feeling of inferiority, attracts women to masculine traits
Femininity (1931) Freud replies that women use their physical appearance, contribute very little to human
development
Why Disparage Women?
Bitterness about mother, envy about not being able to have children, women help the oppression of
women?
Societies where there are strong anti-women views, psychological problems for both genders
Children suffer from basic anxiety, results from hostility and mistreatment by parents, thought hostile
environment was not necessary
Basic evil: results from cold, indifferent, inconsistent parenting, leads to basic hostility which is supressed
b/c child needs parents and their love
Leads to neurotic needs to predict and survive a cold world, neurotic b/c they are randomly applied,
disproportionate in intensity, disregard for reality, provoke intense anxiety when angry
Neurotic needs for
Affection and approval
Partner who will take over everything
Restrict one’s life in narrow borders
Need for Power
Exploitation
Social Recognition
Personal Achievement
Personal Admiration
Perfection
Independence
Can be grouped into
Compliance: Moving Toward
Affection and approval, partner take control, restriction of life to narrow borders
Aggression: Moving Against
Personal achievement
Personal Admiration
Power and Perfection
Social Recognition
Exploitation
Withdrawal:moving away
Independence
Perfection
Restriction of life to narrow borders
Coping Strategies
Moving toward people: self effacing
Surface needs to be in harmony, avoid friction, ideas about martyrdom and helplessness, residual anger
below surface
Moving Against People: Expansive
Life is a struggle against all, need to exploit others for a sense of control, appeal of mastery, success is a
yardstick to measure against
Moving Away from People
“Don’t care about anything
Can be further divided as
Persistent resignation
Rebelliousness: against system but not willing to change it, anarchist
Shallow Living: Find life worthless
Neurotic trends may conflict, and stuff such as phobias and depression can develop
Secondary Defenses:
Externalization: like projectionism but much smaller, e.g. that person needs help studying , I must help
them
Creation of blind spots
Compartmentalization: dividing people into rigid and exclusive boxes, can’t contradict eachother
Rationalization: using reasoning
Excessive Self Control: won’t let emotions be expressed
Arbitrary Rightness: support positions with weak arguments “Because I said so”
Cynicism: cynical stance toward life
Elusiveness: will make no decisions what so ever
She supported self analysis, there was occasional v. systematic
Occasional would be for example, “Why did I say that at the party
Bowbly Attachment Theory
Ainsworth studied children, there were securely attached children, resistant children, and avoidant
children
Secure children would go to mother when she came back, resistant would go to mother but then cry or go
away and avoidant children would avoid mother
Secure can further be divided into secure and complaint (e.g. completely holding unto mother’s skirt)
Results into attachment styles such as securely attached, avoidant preoccupied, dismissive avoidant and
fearful avoidant
A fearful avoidant would want to go to party but worry about being rejected but a fearful avoidant would
worry about having no friends
Attachment styles could be changed by being with a person of a completely different attachment styles
Baumrind: Parental warmth and demands
Indulgent: High on warmth, low on demands
Authoritarian : low on warmth, high on demands
Authoritative: high on both
Uninvolved: Low on both
Fromm
Parents who were Orthodox Jewish, he eventually became an atheistic mystic, he did not have medical
training
PHD in sociology at 22, interested in psychoanalysis, married Freida Reichman, moved to the USA
during Nazi Regime
Later was terminated by Horney from psychoanalytical society for not having medical training
Escape from Freedom: How did Nazis come to power
In medieval times, people knew their position in life and their fate e.g. if your father was a carpenter you
would be a carpenter
One can escape from freedom by
Authorianism:life determined by outside forces, vertical structure of power
Automaton conformity: trying to be like others
Destructiveness: can function as self righteousness
Different from Freud b/c he believes that society plays a large role
Humans are a freak of the universe b/c of their knowledge of death and self awareness
Basic Needs
Basic need of relatedness (need for close human relatiohships)
Transcendence: the need to rise above the animal level, change our environment for the better
Rootedness: need to feel like we belong, life situations often make this hard e.g. moving for jobs
Sense of Identity: Gain sense of identity as we escape from our families
Object of Devotion: Belief sense that encourages loving relationships or one that encourages submission
to a tyrant
Excitation and stimulation: striving for goal
Societies differ in the ways they encourage people to achieve their goals sane v. insane societies Nazi
Germany was an insane society
Is what is acceptable in one society, acceptable in another e.g. cultural relativism, slapping children is
okay in one culture
Having mode of nature: want everything for myself, being mode of nature related to having and
appearances, the true reality of a person
Having orientations
Receptive: I’ll eventually get it
Hoarding
Exploitative: e.g. I want my friend’s boyfriend, b/c he is my friends boyfriend
Marketing: advertise myself e.g. dating market
Being orientation: I am responsible for myself, I prefer freedom from rules
Personality market is exchange and commodity
Art of Loving: are problem is not having no one to love but not having the capacity to love
Love is mistaken for marriage by product, sexuality and seeking success and approval