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Lecture 2

PSY230H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Rorschach Test, Heredity, Radical Environmentalism

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Maja Djikic

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Chapter 3: Carl Jung
- Biographical Context
Pastor and boring father; authoritarian and ugly mother
As a child, he had several close contacts and brushes with death, and he also was
familiar with illness.
During his youth a series of fainting spells caused him to miss over six months of school
Jung originally wanted to be an archaeologist
Became a lecturer at the University of Zurich and established a private practice and
developed a word association test in order to study emotional reactions.
Personal and professional relationship with Sigmund Freud.
They two broke because of the conflicts on the topic of sexuality (Jung believed that
sexuality itself must be seen as symbolic.)
- Analytical psychology (Jung’s own school of thought)
The Nature and Structure of Personality
- Carl Jung conceived of the structure of personality as a complex network of interacting
systems that strive toward eventual harmony.
- Described two primary attitudes toward reality and four basic functions, which together
constitute separate but related aspects of the psyche, or total personality.
- Jung viewed the unconscious as the source of consciousness and the matrix of new
possibilities in life.
Psychic Energy
- Jungs Structure of Personality:
Ego: one’s conscious mind
For Freud, the ego is ideally the executor of the personality.
For Jung, the ego is one’s conscious mind, the parts of the psyche that selects
perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and memories that may enter consciousness.
The ego, however, is not the true center of personality for Jung.
Personal unconscious: perceptions, thoughts, feelings that are easily retrieved
(repressed or forgotten individual experiences)
Experiences in the personal unconscious are grouped into clusters, which Jung
calls complexes.
A complex is an organized group of thoughts, feelings, and memories about a
particular concept. It is said to have a constellating power, which means that the
complex has the ability to draw new ideas into itself and interpret them.
Influencing how we react toward others.
A complex may be organized around a particular person or object. A mother
complex is the cluster of ideas, feelings, and memories that have arisen from our
own particular experiences of having been mothered.
A complex may be conscious, partly conscious, or unconscious. Certain elements
of it may extend into the collective unconscious.
Some complexes appear to dominate an entire personality.
Collective unconscious: universal thought forms or predispositions to respond
(expressed as archetypes)

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Certain archetypes and symbols reappear again and again from society to society,
and they may be seen to have a common meaning.
- Within the collective unconscious lie archetypes, or primordial images.
- Archetype: a universal thought form or predisposition to respond to the world in certain
- Archetypes represent different potential ways in which we may express our humanness.
- Efforts to deny or destroy archetypes place us at risk of becoming unbalanced or one-sided.
- Archetypes can never be fully known or described because they never fully enter
- Several influential archetypes: the persona, the shadow, the anima and animus, and the self
Persona: the social role that one assumes in society and one understanding of it.
The persona represents a compromise between one’s true identity and social
The persona assigned to a group may limit and cripple the development of
individuals in the groups as well as the group itself.
Change in one’s social role, such as marriage, unemployment or retirement, can
lead to dissonance.
Shadow: encompasses those unsocial thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that we
potentially possess and other characteristics that we do not accept.
it is the opposite of persona. It refers to those desire and emotions that are
incompatible with our social standards and ideal personality.
The shadow cannot be avoided, and one is incomplete without it.
The shadow can also be projected onto others.
Jung suggested a need to come to know our baser side and recognize our
animalistic impulses.
Anima and Animus:
The anima archetype: the feminine side of the male psyche
The animus archetype: the masculine side of the female psyche
It assists us in relating to and understanding the opposite sex.
Jung believed that it was important that one express these opposite-sex
characteristics in order to avoid an unbalanced or one-sided personality.
Jung believed that the women’s consciousness is characterized by the ability to
enter into relationships, whereas men’s consciousness is characterized by the
ability to engage in rational and analytic thought.
A women’s animus need not be thought of as acting in opposition to femininity. In
ideal development, the animus will lead a woman to transform her femininity into
a renewed form of consciousness that overcomes the traditional dualities. Same
would be true of ideal development in the male
Androgyny: the presence of both masculine and feminine qualities in an individual
and the ability to realize both potentialities.
The central archetype in Jungs understanding

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The self represents the striving for unity of all parts of the personality.
The self directs an orderly allotment of psychic energy so that different parts of
the personality are expressed appropriately.
Depending on the occasion and our personal needs, the self allows us to be
socially acceptable at work (persona), outrageous at a Halloween party (shadow),
emotional at a concert (shadow), and so forth.
For Jung, the true self lies on the boundary between conscious and unconscious,
reason and unreason.
The self archetype cannot begin to emerge until the other personality systems
have been fully developed. (thus it usually does not begin to emerge until one has
reached middle age.)
Mandala: Jung believes this is a symbol of the universe and also the symbol of the self.
It represents the self striving toward wholeness.
Jung described numerous other archetypes of the collective unconscious: birth,
rebirth, power, magic, the child, the hero…..
Archetypes find expression in cultural forms (adam is the first man; Christ and
Buddha represent the self)
Freud and the Collective Unconscious
Jung believed that our unconscious remains archaic, despite our scientific
technology and the development of our rational powers.
- Jungs concept of the collective unconscious is an important and controversial one in
personality theorizing, evoking both considerable support and opposition.
Psychological Types
- Arise out of various combinations of two basic attitudes and four functions, or ways of
perceiving the environment and orienting experiences.
Extraversion: an attitude in which the psyche is oriented outward to the objective
Introversion: an attitude in which the psyche is oriented inward to the subjective
Jung labeled himself an introvert and Freud and extravert.
The functions of sensation and intuition refer to how we gather data and
information. The sensor is more comfortable using the five senses and dealing
with facts and reality. The intuitor looks for relationships and meanings or
possibilities about past or future events.
Thinking and feeling refer to how we come to conclusions or making judgments.
The thinker prefers to use logic and impersonal analysis. The feeler is more
concerned with personal values, attitudes, and beliefs.
The two attitudes and four functions combine to form eight psychological types.
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