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PSY230H1 Lecture Notes - Preconscious, Castration Anxiety, Motor Control

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Maja Djikic

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PSY230 L1 Sept 14 2011
Most ppl can suppress personality In strong situations
Low constraint situations weak suppression
Ex. at home, parties, w friends
Sometimes mistake a person for their social mask
o Method of adaptability to fit in
o Situation-dependent
“Not being yourself” – holding back by changing to gain
o Is there such a thing as the true you?
o Some psychologists say situation predominately
determines personality but personality psychs
How do you see the “real them”?
o Observation : day to day life, questionnaires, when
they don’t think they’re watching, in weak situations
o Problems:
Many ppl inaccurate about personality in both
positive and negative components
May say who we want to be vs who we are bias
in self-understanding
a distinct pattern of feelings + thoughts + bhvrs that
characterize a person’s adjustment to the demands of life”
stable ways we are w ourselves + others
not sensory qualities, physical characteristics, appearance
(ex. tired, hungry)
o tall ppl can have dif personalities, can even be based
on height
Over 50 definitions of personality
each based on the theorist’s opinion, perception of self
and world around them
different theories of what a human being is
“cave hominem unius libri” beware the man of one book
Theories depend on generation
Reductionism (reducing the human to one component) vs
Pluralism problematic
Often two distinct groups:
o Academic Psychology (academic settings, scientific
method to uncover general principles, want to
categorize ppl vs help them, use research participants,
research based around averages so more descriptive
o Clinical Practice (clinical/psychotherapeutic settings,
research primarily though case histories)
Scientific Statements forming testable hypotheses
o Need verifiability, predictive power, compatibility,
simplicity, usefulness)
Philosophical Statements making
assumptions/inferences about human nature
o Need coherence, relevance, comprehensiveness,
[inherent] compellingness
Ex. Good vs. Evil
Example essay intro: I find ___ a prob because ___. ___
can help with this problem according to his ___ theory so
if ___ then the problem would improve
Statement Responses: 1 strong disagree, 5 strongly agree
o Most ppl in middle btwn 15-45 pts
interested in freudian theories and slips
Before Freud, ppl didn’t want to understand deeply
F’s theories strongly influenced by his era and family
Cultural Context: 1880s
Separation of sexes:
o Male dominated, male virtues extolled
Ambition, aggressiveness, toughness
Dominion of wife/children unquestioned, brought
up authoritarian
o Women
no political + education rights, rich don’t work
more free time, enough money to participate in
F’s experiments
o Delinquent youth sternly punished, corporal
punishment indispensible
o Inter-generation conflict more than today
o Authoritarianism and hierarchy outside family as well
Sexual repression:
o Lack of contraception couldn’t cheat w/o possibility
of pregnancy, fear of venereal diseases (particularly
o 21 when F born, attractive, F = fav son, warm
o Twice age of mother, cold relationship, feared and
Starting out:
Worked 10 yrs in Neurological studies
o Abandoned to get married
Cocaine research published paper in 1884
o claimed cocaine = stimulant, aphrodisiac, helped
stomach disorders, asthma, removal of painful
symptoms of morphine withdrawal
o “Wonder drug
Gave to friends (morphine-addicts) became
cocaine-addicts, used it himself,
Wanted theories to encompass everything
2 experiences led to neuropathology:
1. 6mth travel grant w Vincent Charcot (world-famous
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o Mental institution Selpetier, famous for hysteria-
o enthused on C’s hysteria + hypnotism theories
o Neuroses/Hysteria: various forms of mental illness,
no organic cause found
sometimes cured by psy and social influences
o Hypnotism: trance stare where action partially
under control of another
Not all easily hypnotized
Often suggestion made it look real
2. Story of Joseph Breuer patient “Anna O”
o Saw case at start of psychoanalysis
o Numerous hysterical symptoms disappeared one by
one as Breuer was able to make her evoke the
specific circumstances that led to their appearance
By catharsis release of emotion
Notice great benefit
Supported by modern research
o Cared for her father, manifested signs of physical
weakness paralysis, ocular disturbance, linguistic
disorganization (couldn’t speak in german but could
in English), split personality (ex. Respectful
Split personality: presentation of personality to
world varies
Many constraints of women in this class
expected to play piano, sew, vegetate while
husband works, be nice
suppressed characteristics are expressed
in the other personality
these things feel so inappropriate you
pretend they’re not yours even tho the
voice in your head in yours
More constrained situation More we feel
like the voices in our head aren’t our own
o Spoke nothing but English and told B hallucinations
o Slow recovery, talking cure
Tells origins of symptoms in exact reverse order
they disappear
Ex. Tried to hold back tears (so eyes blurry)
caused the ocular disturbance
Emotional dis-regulating since didn’t want to
express emotion in front of father
o B hypothesized a therapeutic effect of cathartic
expression of emotion that was previously
o Actually Bertha Pappenheim
Refined education, no neuroses in youth, moved
to Frankfurt w mother after father’s death
Later: Concerned w social work in late 1880s,
director of Jewish orphanage in Frankfurt for 11
yrs, travelled in Balkan countries, near east,
Russia to inquire prostitution and slavery, 1904
founded league of Jewish women, 1907 founded
teaching institution affiliated w the 1904,
numerous writings
1894 F introduces concept of DEFENSE (abwehr)
Forgetting painful memories and ideas
o Often occurs in abused children
Mind too underdeveloped to
comprehend/understand that your caregiver is
also your abuser
o More likely to forget if younger
o idea of unconscious (Nowadays, ex. Heart
place where all unpleasant things r stored
o Trauma itself isnt pathogenic, but its
representation is (how you deal with it)
o Defense is directed against sexual ideas at the basis
B disagreed
o Common feature in neurosis
1895 B and F published Studies in Hysteria
“Free Association”
o Suggested to B by the patient herself
o In a trusting environment, lets the mind wander into
the forbidden part of the mind
1896 F sketched new classification of neuroses
Actual neurosis (source in present sexual life)
o Neuroasthenia (masturbation)
o Anxiety neurosis (frustrated sexual stimulation,
particularly coitus interruptis stops pregnancy by
pulling out)
Psychoneuroses (source in past sexual life)
o Hysteria (sexual abuse by an adult, passively
suffered in childhood) more by women
o Obsessions (sexual abuse by adult, more active role,
pleasure, and therefore self-reproach) more by
males since more active role in society
o Actually: 1 in 5 girls are abused
o The women in Freud’s studies were rich enough to
F called it great accomplishment/discovery in neuro-
By 1897 he retracted part of the theory (the abuse)
Argued stories of early seduction told by his hysterical
patients were fantasies/wishes, not memories due to:
o Lack of therapeutic success
o Impossibility of distinguishing the unconscious of
memory from fiction
o The improbability that so much abuse goes
unnoticed by adults
F’s perspective:
o Middle aged
o Dealing w daughters of his respectable colleagues
o Didn’t want to think his colleagues could be abusers
o Told the stories to whoever paid (the fathers)
o Didn’t want to expose the abusers that were paying
his bills (didn’t want to communicate the unpleasant
o Thought other colleagues wouldn’t understand
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