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Lecture 5

PSY230H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Kurt Lewin, Raymond Cattell, Gordon Allport

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Amanda Sharples

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lecture 5: trait theories
Gordon Allport
-nomothetic approach: describing ppl along a single dimension according to their
level of a particular trait
-idiographic approach: identifying the combo of traits that best accounts for the
personality of an individual
-cardinal traits: dominate a person’s personality
-central traits: traits that best describe a person
-secondary traits: less relevant traits, only present in certain situations
Henry Murray
-inspired by Jung
-need: a readiness to respond in a certain way under given circumstances
-needs for power, achievement & affiliation
-similar to Jung’s archetypes
Raymond Cattell
-used factor analysis to determine structure of human personality
-factor analysis: do scores on particular items tend to group together?
-reduced large groups of traits down to 16 core personality traits
5-factor model
-5 factors are valid & reliable!
1. openness (intellect)
2. conscientiousness
3. extraversion
4. agreeableness
5. neuroticism
-Big 5 model has both biological & environmental components
-evidence of relationship between Big 5 traits & brain regions
Kurt Lewin
-father of social psychology
-behaviour = function of person + environment
-personality traits have low cross-situational consistency
type approach: type A personality
-higher competitive achievement striving
-respond to frustrating situations w/ anger
-want to control ppl & situation
-dominate group discussions
trait level optimism
-dispositional optimism: extent to which ppl adopt to positive viewpoints
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