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Lecture 3

PSY230H1 Lecture 3: Psy230-lecture 3-Premium


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY230H1
Professor
Amanda Sharples
Lecture
3

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Lecture 3
Psychoanalysis: Neo-Freudian theorists and current research
1. Alfred Adler
Worked with Freud till 1911 and then distinguished himself from
Freud’s ideas on how to approach psychoanalysis in treating
individuals.
Focused on individual psychology
- Considering the individual as a whole rather than a sum of its parts.
- How a person’s relationship, including their family, community and
the society that they are part of, can influence their personality.
- Influenced by the idea of holism.
3 factors that influence human behavior
- Will to power
o A driving motivating force, we wanted to feel like we have
power over not just other people, but also in our own mind.
o Focused on Birth order first born children usually get the
most attention from their parents. And when the second child
come along, that attention is taken away which could lead to
inferiority of the first child. Also the first child is unlikely to be
able to deal with certain things in the future, and can develop
behavior including drug addiction and criminal behavior.
The second children tend to have the most healthy response
as they’re not over indulged than the first child, who instead
serves a motivating force for them.
- Striving to superiority
o The younger child always trying to keep up with their
siblings.
- The inferiority complex
o A last of self-esteem, a doubt and uncertainty about oneself,
as well as feelings of unable to meet the standards. Often
happens subconsciously.
o Can result in either striving to achieve greatness or extreme
social behavior.
2. Viktor Frankl
The 3rd school of psychoanalysis will to meaning.
He argued that the way to find happiness and satisfaction is through
finding meaning.
A survivor of the Nazi concentration camp.
Wrote “Man’s search for meaning”

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- Argues that there were two types of people
I. People that treasure their values.
II. Unprincipled people who give up their values just to
survive.
After escaping from the camp, he learned that his family has all been
killed.
3 forms of meaning we find in our lives.
I. Will to meaning
o Dedication to our career
o A way to make sense of who you are and find meaning in
your life.
o When you open yourself up to love or care about someone,
you are also opening up to be hurt by that person.
o Losing someone you love in your life.
II. Finding meaning in suffering
o Find meaning through difficult experiences and come out of it
as a stronger individual.
o When people don’t get over these difficulties, then it’s unable
to make sense of who they are.
III. Logo therapy
o The issues of people that suffer from anxiety or depression is
that they’re dealing with a discrepancy between who they are
or who they feel they should be comparing to the
responsibility recognized by society that they are not living
up to.
o Self-discrepancy.
3. Anna Freud
Youngest daughter of Sigmond Freud.
Particularly interested in human development.
Thought the ego is really important influenced by her father, and
repression should be focused on the most.
She did a lot of work on developmental trajectories for understanding
pathological and normative development and comparing them.
Disorders classified to adults cannot be applied in the same way for
children.
Focused on Pathology developmentally and comparing it to normative.
4. Erik Erikson
Well known for psychosocial theory of development as it emphasize
on the struggle of developing oneself in a social content.
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He worked with Anna Freud as well, therefore, also thinks that the ‘ego’
is really important, typically in constructing our identity.
Develop a theory of development over the entire lifespan.
(lecture slides)
- Trust vs. Mistrust Infancy
o Learn to trust people and the world around us. (attention
received from caregiver)
- Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Toddler
o Body training.
- Initiative vs. Guilt Early childhood
o First to engage with peers.
- Industry vs. Inferiority Elementary school age
o Demonstrate our efficacy in various domains.
- Identity vs. Role confusion Adolescence
o Primary time in life trying to construct identity.
- Intimacy vs. Isolation Young adulthood
o Starting to establish romantic relationships.
- Generativity vs. Stagnation Adulthood
o Things that we are creating or giving back to the society.
- Integrity vs. Despair Old age
o Reflect the things that we have done in the lifespan.
5. Karen Horney
Both influenced by and critical of Freud’s work.
Founder for the American Institute for Psychoanalysis.
Credited for establishing feminine psychology.
Argued that men unable to internally having children like women do,
they fulfill that dream externally by their career or initiating by achieving
other great things in life.
Argued that femininity and masculinity are not biological, but more
socially determined.
Woman and men having different roles in the society impact their
behaviors as well.
Neurotic people who are trapped in a self-defeating interpersonal
style.
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