PSY230H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Edward Thorndike, Aversion Therapy, Classical ConditioningPremium
This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 7 pages of the document.
The Behavioural/Social learning Approach
❖ Classical conditioning
1. Ivan Pavlov – fonder of classical conditioning.
▪ Experiment of dog salivating for food.
I. Unconditional stimulus will trigger an unconditional response.
II. A neutral stimulus will trigger no response.
III. Pairing of unconditioned stimuli with an neutral stimulus to trigger an
IV. Eventually a conditioned stimulus will elicit a conditioned response.
▪ Occurs when a neutral stimulus pairs with a negative experience or stimulus, which
then become a condition of fear.
3. Systematic Desensitization
▪ Used to try to reverse a phobia by gradual exposure of the fear. (not necessarily
▪ After gradual exposure of the situation (eg. Anxiety for speech), the anxiety or fear
level goes down and they will become better and more relaxed at doing it.
▪ Patient are taught with relaxation techniques (Eg. breathing, meditation).
4. Aversion therapy
▪ Applied to discourage behaviours on treating addictions such as alcohol or smoking
by pairing an undesirable stimulus (Eg. a drug that will cause nausea) with a habitual
❖ Operant conditioning
1. In contrast with classical conditioning which happens unconsciously in the mind most of the
time, operant conditioning intentionally teaches people to behave in a certain way. It’s
more related to the conscious mind, the person is aware of what is promoting the
2. Law of effect by Edward Thorndike
▪ Behaviours are more likely to be reinforced or repeated if they always lead to
▪ Behaviours are less likely to be reinforced if they lead to negative outcomes.
3. B. F. Skinner
Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.
I. Positive reinforcement – increase the behaviour by giving external or intrinsic
II. Negative reinforcement – increase the behaviour by removing unwanted or aversive
stimulus. (Eg. A child doesn’t have to eat the food that he/she doesn’t like if they
finish the homework)
III. Extinction—decrease the behaviour by not giving reward or ignoring the behaviour
and do not give the reaction wanted.
IV. (Positive) punishment – decrease the behaviour by giving aversive stimulus or taking
away something positive.
4. 2 important concepts of operant conditioning
▪ Generalization – generate a pattern of response of a specific stimulus to another
- Certain set pattern of behaviours that lead to rewarding outcomes will be
generated across situations.
▪ Discriminate – differentiate between rewarding and non-rewarding stimuli.
- In some situations, certain behaviour will work well, however, sometimes it
doesn’t work very well.
- Eventually come to know what reaction to expect from your behaviour.
▪ Might arise when a neutral stimuli pairs with a negative stimulus.
▪ Reinforced by operant conditioning, the anxiety level is reduced when a person is
trying to avoid the anxiety of phobia situation as negative reinforcement.
❖ Learned behaviours
1. Julian B. Rotter
▪ Behaviour-environment-behaviour interactions
- Environment will influence people’s behaviour therefore determines the
environment that people will favour and willing to a part of.
- Behaviour potential (BP) = Expectancy (E) + Reinforcement Value (RV)
o Expectancy is the efficacy and beliefs, whether we think that this
behaviour will lead to positive outcomes or not (if I can do this or not).
o The reinforcement value is the value of each potential behaviours and
see which one will bring the most valuable outcomes.
2. Albert Bandura
▪ Reciprocal determinism
- Both external and internal factors contribute to the system of interacting
o External factors (external locus of control) – rewards and punishments.
(More in line with operant conditioning)
You're Reading a Preview
Unlock to view full version