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Lecture 4

PSY230H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Gordon Allport, Raymond Cattell, Collective Unconscious

Course Code
Amanda Sharples

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Jan 31
Question1: Paul is late 30s. really focus on his work and rising kids. generativity
and stagnation.
Displacement and the sublimation when you cannot release your aggression.
Gordon Allport:
They went to the dictionary and focus in the language that describe people.
Using the dictionary biased on the western culture.
He talks about 2 approaches that we can talk about personality.
Nomothetic approach:
Idiographic approach:
Cardinal traits: historical figure. Dominate a person’s personality.
But most people not defined one trait.
Allport said that there are 5-10 traits that best predicted a person.
Secondary traits: traits are not guide your behaviour too often, it depends on the
Henry Murray (works close to Jung, and uses the collective unconscious)
Primary: we need to eat, sleep,
Secondary: are more psychological, like: power, admiration(achievement)
Power: need to have power over other people and need admiration from other
Ambition: more about achievement, intrinsic needs. Want to be masterful and
Affection: need for affiliation. To be close to other people, not lonely and human
Information: those are cognitive in nature. A need to understand the world.
Materialistic: require realistic things, need things to show off like that. Look good
Status defense: self-protection. Protect the Ego.
Raymond Cattell

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Factor analysis: give questionnaire to a lot of people and see the overlaps. If
things come together, it will show these group together and they might all
measure the same thing.
He is trying to narrow them down.
The 5 Factor model:
5 treats: 5 unique treats.
Agreeableness: politeness, helpful, apathetic, trusting and cooperate.
Disagreeable: not cooperate, start argument, critical, suspicious.
How to measure the agreeableness: “I feel about other’s emotions” (this is getting
apathy); disagreeable: “I seek conflict”
Conscientiousness: has to do industrious, and orderliness(discipline)
High end: people are goal driven, dependable, organise.
Low: impulsive, are not very focus, no goal, diagnosed, and not reliable.
Quotes that determine conscientiousness: “I finish what I start”
Low on the conscientiousness: “I am not bothered by mess.”
Extroversion: (carl Jung proposed the idea about people focus more on the
internal world and the internal world)
High: excitement, friendly, enthusiastic, assertions.
leadership quality, and make friends easily
Low: someone that is reserved, clam and quiet.
they are introverts (could be they fear of integrations with people or they prefer)
people who is low introverted say that I wait other people lead the way.
Neuroticism (has to do with negative emotion)
Anxiety and emotionally active and withdrawal.
High: they are high with hostility.
Low: they have even-temper, and comfortable with self
High in the Neuroticism can be problematic in someone’s wellbeing.
High: I get anger very angry. (hostility)
Low: I rarely feel depressed: I feel comfort with myself
Openness/intellect (how open you are with experiences)

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How would you like to think abstract ideas, how much you enjoy understanding
the world.
High: creative, adventurous, imaginative.
“I like to reflex new things”
Low: Down to earth: they are direct, and practical, not thinking abstractly. They
don’t like to change, and they are usually conservative.
“I learn new things slowly”
The big 5 result:
The percentile tell you compare to the average.
The percentile tells you more informative. And important to know where you fall
in this population. Not just in a category, but also how extroverted/… you are.
More useful to measure in this way.
Recent research shows that: people are very accurate. They did the test and other
people describe them in the test. And they find people’s self-report is very
The test is consistent:
When other people evaluate you and camper that to what you do it by
yourselves. Therefore, the self-reflection is accurate.
The Hexaco model:
They argue that there is other personality trait that seems in the data that they
have. Honesty/humility.
Different than the agreeableness, because this is not just being polite, or nice, this
is being humble and someone who is into material things. And not being
There is other personality trait.
That is Honesty and the humility
The dark triad (negative traits)
They say it is different than personal disorders, they can exist in general
population, not just in personality disorders.
The triad are correlated with each other.
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