PSY230H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Behaviorism
Attach don’t copy & paste assignment. Can't be mental health (anything
found in DSM).
Has to be psychological journal but peer review can be anything
Things that appear as they do to us.
A table is a chair to you because you are sitting on it.
Interpretation is the meaning of things.
We can never know what things are directly, we can only know the
1.1.1) If a few things happen, how can we relate them.
1.1.2) We can transcend our own mind – the contents in our mind. We are
not able to just think, I can think about thinking, you can think about my
thinking. It’s a reflexive thought.
It is the lens through which you view the event that affects you rather than
the things in it that affect you.
The problem is you think you don’t have tools to solve your problem so he
provides with the tools to solve. It doesn't matter what he diagnoses you
with. Then give you treatment according to diagnosis. To Rank that was
awful. If you have similar symptoms you fall into a category and you are all
similar. You are making one assumption after another about your problem
and what can be done to correct it.
2.1) Therapist often mistake the presence of their clients.
2.2) Treat each person as if they are unique. I’m not trying to categorize
you or diagnose you. I’m trying to see if we can use separate language
just for you.
2.4) Doesn't matter what school of therapy you come from. As long as you
have a unique relationship with therapist, it will work for you.
1) So the client knows they aren’t going to be forever dependent. You are
signaling to the client they need to do things on their own after.
2) Rebirth is when you become your own person and not relying on
anyone. You know what’s best for you.
You plant a seed, if it has what it needs (sunlight, water) it grows into a
tree. If not, it will be undeveloped. The rule of psychotherapy is to put all
necessary conditions for full growth.
Behaviorism didn't account for wondrous experiences to him.
Trying to focus on positive psychological factors.
2) It is corrective against all that negativity.
1) Clear movement to thinking of a healthy personality and not be
influenced by other people.
Self-actualization is continuing to expand mental, physical capacities.
They are always fulfilling it.
1.1) In touch with reality.
1.2) Come to same problem with permeable idea of what to anticipate.
They don't expect situation to be same and are able to perceive the
1.4) Kohlberg said the rules we agree on aren’t always our ethical
conventional ones (it is not ethical for me so I have to do something else).
1.1) They are sharing something you have. So when you make fun of
them you are making fun of yourself really.
1.3) Because they have fresh perception it could be but there not always
2.1) You are so focused on what is happening you forget about yourself.
You are yourself but are fully functioning. Person that is looking on what
you do is gone so you don't know what's good or bad.
1.1) Ex: car accident. You can see things happening in slow motion. With
that clarity you are out of time and space.
1) Not survival potential. If your coming close to it you feel joy
(predominant emotion) and if your not you feel suffering. Your potential
might include things that shorten your life, which is difficult for people to
accept. Most people’s potential is glamorous. People’s potential doesn't
mean your survival needs will be met sometimes its conflicts because they
have different needs. Survival needs doesn't care about potential and
potential doesn't care if you survive.
Unless you have the bottom ones met, you can’t get to the top.
You cant’ strive for self-actualization unless you had some of the other
No internal conflict for animals because they only have to survive. Our
conflict comes from we have 2 needs: 1) survival and 2) potential or non-
survival (tell us how we are going along in our needs). Two are going in
different direction and so are conflicting. One has to be dominant (either
survival or potential). You can be suffering and happy (working at a good
job but not too happy about it). Move from one set of choice to another on
and off. Parents want us to survive, have status, money and be
comfortable. Your individual feeling about safe and unsafe is different.
1.1) We can have a lot of perceptions but will never make their way to the
mind, which is very small. It’s the unconscious that knows the perception.
Making it to the mind is what he called symbolization process.
1) I can’t know what’s in someone else’s phenomenal field.
3) Some families they can’t feel anger so they feel sadness disguised as
1) Self is like the ego. It was psychological and conscious in nature.
1) Congruence is when it makes itself in the mind and gets symbolized. I
am being incongruent with self in a distorted way. Congruent is a state in
where you are accurately saying what is happening in reality (Ex: having a
bad lecture and saying I had a bad lecture instead of I had a good lecture).
1) You change as you grow.
2.1) Feelings in that moment.
2.3) My role is to help you clarify what you feel.
It’s not the insight it's the connection to help the person heal.
2.2) Lack of active care for client.
It’s not enough to understand, you have to know I understand (I’ll nod,
repeat what you said).
By some perception in communication I make you feel good about
yourself. When you feel understood, cared for and you can experience it.
Everyone has need for positive regard.
1) You don’t have to agree with what the person does. Separate the action
from the child (I will still love you but your action was wrong).
Your mind is telling you something different from your body.
What you suppress depends on the environment you’re in.
1) It’s about what plans do for the self.