PSY240H1 Lecture Notes - American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association, Neprilysin

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Published on 7 Feb 2013
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Use newer sources for better marks (3-4 years)
Try to use outside references other than the ones given with
3-4 pages
Discuss the issue and make sure to use all the sources given with the
assignment (plus more of my own)
Right now we are using DSM-IV-TR for diagnostics, DSM-V is coming
out this year. DSM-IV-TR is the newest version being used in NA right
now, published by the American Psychiatric Association (different from
the American Psychological Association- APA). The rest of the world
uses I
CD-10 for diagnostics. DSM-V is coming out because we needed a
diagnostic manual that is compatible with ICD-10.
The most common difference between psychologists and psychiatrists
is the ability to prescribe meds. Psychiatrists are able to prescribe
meds because they went to medical school. Psychologists cannot
prescribe meds because they went to graduate school.
There is a high co-morbidity with anxiety disorders and mood
Co-morbidity means pathologies that occur together
All material up to week 4 will be testable on the midterm, midterm will
be February 15th **
Behaviour: things that you do
Aggression, studying, memorizing
Personality disorders are treatable, but do not go away
What is abnormal behaviour?
Easy to recognize, but difficult to define
#1. So the DSM uses statistical criteria to determine whether a
behaviour is abnormal such as:
Deviating from the norms (mean) on the normal curve
Frequency of behaviour
Scoring lower on IQ scales than their peers
If you are in the 1/3 of the population that deviates from the norm,
you are labeled abnormal (2/3 fall within the norm)
For example, scoring below 70 on an IQ test would be 1 standard
deviation below the mean, therefore the person would be labeled with
the psychopathology of mental retardation
DSM-IV only takes into account statistical criteria, DSM-V will take into
account adaptability (ability to adapt behaviour to environment)
This also needs to be considered when diagnosing
This method has its issues, there are 2 ends to each curve
Above average and below average
So IQ over 130 (1 std deviation above the mean) is the
psychopathology of being “gifted”
Although the statistical criteria dictates that this behaviour be labeled
as abnormal, DSM-IV does not label being “gifted” as abnormal
Therefore, we should not only use statistical criteria to diagnose
There are also behaviours that are seen as normal, that can be labeled
as a pathology due to the DSM
Ex. substance abuse
In DSM-IV, yet most people participate in this behaviour
This is another problem with using statistical criteria to define
#2. Cultural norms are also used to determine what behaviour is
There is 1 disorder that almost all societies agree is abnormal
A psychosis: loss of touch with reality
Disordered thoughts
Sensory (especially auditory)
But can occur in all sensory domains
But this definition of schizophrenia also causes problems, there is
another group where delusions, and hallucinations are considered
Really hard to diagnose schizophrenia in children, because delusions
and hallucinations are common in childhood
#3. Whether something is normal depends on the context
The greater the deviation from the norm, the more worried we become
Fast development is seen more positively than slow development,
even when the outcome is the same
Slow development does not necessarily indicate mental retardation
#4. Frequency, intensity, and duration of behaviour
For depression duration: sad affect for at least 6 weeks
How are abnormal behaviours understood?
What are the etiological models of abnormal behaviour?
Medical-Disease Model **
Primary explanatory model right now
Incorporates a number of interrelated specific causal models
Genetic Model- genetic causes of abnormal behaviour
Twin studies conducted with monozygotic twins (best studies had each
twin adopted to different families, so any similarities were due to
Then look at how similar their behaviour is over time (concordance
These studies are rare because they are longitudinal and expensive
Ex. Swedish twin study on schizophrenia found that it is clearly a
biological disorder
Environmental Model