PSY240H1 Lecture Notes - Intellectual Disability, Psychopathology, Normal Distribution

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26 Feb 2013
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PSY240 Lecture 1 Notes
Introduction
oDSM-IV-TR is what North America currently uses; ICD-10 or rest of the
world
oComorbidity – multiple pathologies at once
oExplaining what we will be studying
What is Abnormal?
oPsychopathology usually is easy to recognize but difficult to define
oMajor iagnostic systems use statistical criteria to determine hwat is
abnormal
oDefining abnormal (contemporary criteria)
Statistical Demonstrations
Must deviate from norm
oNormal distribution = bell shaped curve
oIdentify frequency of the behaviors
Deviation from IQ norm
oAnything below 70 gives you diagnosis of a
psychopathology of mental retardation; above 130
gives you gifted
oShould being gifted not also be considered
abnormal? (outside the norm)
Examples of this question include many
unfavorable common behaviors such as
substance abuse
Cultural Norms
Across cultures, schizophrenia (psychosis via loss of touch
with reality) is recognized as abnormal.
oMain symptoms
Delusions – thinking something that is not
true
Hallucinations – false sensory experiences in
any of 5 sensory domains (potentially the
6th domain of vestibular-balance)
oExtremely difficult to diagnose children as
schizophrenic
Defining abnormal via cultural norms even has its pitfalls
though, just like anything else
Developmental Norms
At certain ages, people are expected to developed to a
certain level
2 years – child has 30-50 words
oif child has not learned to communicate by 3 years:
abnormal
ofaster is better with development; but slower does
not necessarily indicate retardation; some children
develop faster or slower than others even when the
outcome is the same.
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Document Summary

Examples of this question include many unfavorable common behaviors such as substance abuse. Cultural norms: across cultures, schizophrenia (psychosis via loss of touch with reality) is recognized as abnormal, main symptoms. Delusions thinking something that is not true. Hallucinations false sensory experiences in any of 5 sensory domains (potentially the. 6th domain of vestibular-balance: extremely difficult to diagnose children as schizophrenic, defining abnormal via cultural norms even has its pitfalls though, just like anything else. Developmental norms: at certain ages, people are expected to developed to a certain level. For frequency, intensity, and duration, you are most likely going to be using statistical components to this: when studying abnormal, you have to be very considerate of every factor. Medical disease model (currently this is the more accepted paradigm: dealing with genetics and bio. Environmental model: dealing with all environmental factors (ex stress being a, genetic model huge factor) Looking at genome and at genetic causes of abnormal behaviors.

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