Features of personality disorders (pds) (they all are maladaptive) Cognition (perception of themselves or world or others), affect (range, appropriateness, lability, and intensity of emotions), interpersonal functioning (difficulty in maintaining/initiating relationships, paranoia about others, fear of abandonment), and/or impulse control. Evident across a wife range of personal, social, and occupational situations. people from all aspects of this person"s life will probably observe personality disorder traits not just friends or not just family, but both. Personal distress or impairment in social and occupational functioning. personal distress is not necessary such as with people who have anti-social personality disorder, they don"t feel distressed at all. Symptoms evident since at least late adolescence (usually early adolescence to late adulthood) and stable (over time but not necessarily at the same intensity stressors may increase intensity) Pds are long standing, maladaptive, inflexible ways of relating to the world. They are diagnosed on axis-ii of dsm.