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Lecture 1

PSY240H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Klinik, Taste


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H1
Professor
Hywel Morgan
Lecture
1

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Lecture 1 – January 11, 2013
Introduction
- the study of the prevalence: when, where, in what number does it occur, what causes it epidemiology
- easier to recognize abnormal behaviour than define what abnormal behaviour is
- psychiatrists prescribe drugs, psychologists do not
- why does N. America use a different diagnostic manual?
- There seem to be disorders that are specific to N. American society
- Why does N. America seem to have mental disorders that the rest of the world doesn’t?
- the impetus for developing DSM-5 was to make it fully compatible with ICD-10 and make it more research based
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
- ICD-10 used statistics have been gathered to look at clusters of symptoms that constitute a specific diagnosis – DSM didn’t do this
- When reporting to province, report using ICD codes not DSM codes
- The prevalence of mental disorders is reported in ICD-10 codes
- Mood disorders are closely related to anxiety disorders high comorbidity
- Comorbidity occurrence of two disorders together; pathologies that occur together
- The most common dissociative disorder is multiple personality disorder (now called dissociative disorder)
- Somatoform and dissociative disorders are going to change in DSM-5
- Schizophrenia is not a personality disorder; their symptoms are not chronic
- Depression is relatively easy to overcome, but symptoms are likely to reoccur
- Schizophrenia and depression are not personality disorders and are not life-long
- Psychopathy is difficult to treat recognized as intractable
HOW DO WE DEFINE ABNORMAL?
Using Statistical Criteria to Define Abnormal Behaviour [1]
- behaviour that deviates from the mean is abnormal
- a normal distribution is a bell-shaped curve
- frequency is on the y-axis of the distribution most frequent in the middle, least frequent on the ends of the curve
- IQ (intelligence quotient) is the most common measure of intelligence
oIQ= intellectual age/chronological age
oIQ doesn’t change
oThere is a change in mental performance up until the age of ~16, then it levels off
oMean IQ is 100 (middle of the curve)
oPeople who score significantly lower means they score 1 or more standard deviations below the mean considered a mental
pathology, mental retardation
oScoring below 70 on an IQ test would label you with mental retardation
oPeople with an IQ above 130 are known as “gifted” (not in DSM-IV)
Even though the statistical criteria dictates that we label this as abnormal, we don’t
It is not classified as a pathology
Hence our problem with using statistical criteria to define abnormal
When using statistical criteria, the outlier is considered pathological, but “gifted” is not designated as a pathology
statistically abnormal but favourable, so not classified as abnormal
- Also have unfavourable behaviours that are classified as normal e.g. substance abuse (in DSM-IV)
- Adaptive behaviour able to change your behaviour based on the environment
- Psychologists say mental retardation is a combination of a lower cognitive capacity and a reduced capacity to change to your environment
-
Using Cultural Norms to Define Abnormal Behaviour [2]
- Need to understand what is abnormal in different cultural and social contexts
- Significant potential for cultural bias
- One disorder that most cultures agree is disordered, abnormal and pathological schizophrenia
oSchizophrenia is diagnosed as a psychosis loss of touch with reality, not experiencing the same thing other people are
oMain symptoms of schizophrenia are delusions (believing something that is not true) and hallucinations (false sensory experiences; in
any of the sensory domains)
oThere are five sensory domains: auditory (domain in which people are most likely to have hallucinations), visual, olfactory, gustatory,
somatosensory
oVestibular sense is the sense of balance (inner ear)
oThe problem with this definition is that children display delusions and hallucinations, but their behaviour is not considered abnormal
- In terms of social norms, depends on the environmental context
- Using social and cultural norms has pitfalls as well
Using Developmental Norms to Define Abnormal Behaviour [3]
- Also use statistical norms
- By 18 months – 2 years, child is expected to have a vocabulary of 30 – 50 words
- If child has not learned to communicate by 4 – 5 years, development is abnormal
- The greater the deviation from the developmental norm, the greater the concern
- Fast development is seen more positively than slow development, even when the outcome is the same
- Slow development does not necessarily indicate mentally retarded
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