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Lecture 5

PSY240H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Bulimia Nervosa, Catatonia, Comorbidity

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Hywel Morgan

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PSY240 Lecture 5 – February 15, 2013
“Mood Disorders”
- mood disorders are disorders of depression/sad affect
- emotional, anxiety
- being depressed is not abnormal; being happy all the time is abnormal mania
- there is a valid function of all emotions
othings that make you sad, you tend to want to avoid – this is its function
- flat affect no expression
oit is not a component of depression – there is sad affect in depression
ono effective response
oconnotation of no emotional expression
omay indicate psychosis, could be autism (but you see aggression and anger frequently)
oimplies brain damage/neurological condition
- 20% chance of developing depression if a family member has it too; same chances as anxiety, because anxiety and depression occur together quite
frequently (comorbid)
- A lot of anxiety disorders are treated with anti-depressants; there is an overlap, although they are separate disorders
- Evidence is showing that there may be some biochemical relationship between the two; the symptoms are different evoke different emotions cross-
culturally (fear vs. sadness), but are strongly related
- sad affect appears in 2 major conditions (may change on DSM-V; axial system may be dropped too)
ounipolar disorder [1]
disorders of persistent (referring to duration) feelings of sadness and despair
extremely common
probably just as common as anxiety disorders
major depression disorder (MDD)– an extreme sad affect
one category of unipolar disorder
most common among all mood disorders
intensity and duration associated with MDD
comes and goes; is recurrent, but won’t last as long as dysthemic disorder
DSM clearly outlines a duration for diagnosis of depression
A loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure
Occurs in about 10 – 20% of the population
Seems to be more common in women than in men
Caused by bad things happening to you
SYMPTOMS OF UNIPOLAR DEPRESSION(apply to all categories)
Emotional symptoms [1]
oMeasure emotion by self-report, observation, physiological means
oBeck Depression Inventory (BDI) is used to measure depression; quick + accurate (self-report inventory)
oSad, miserable, worthless, hopeless, unhappy, lonely, worried, useless, guilty
oThere is a cognitive component
oThese moods tend to vary throughout the day; worse in the morning
oLoss in pleasure in what they would usually find pleasurable
oAvoid social gatherings
oAccompanied by a feeling of anxiety comorbidity
Cognitive symptoms [2]
oFeeling of worthlessness and helplessness
oSee themselves in a negative light
oTypically feelings of low self-esteem
oBeliefs of inadequacy and inferiority
oTypically leads to a reduced IQ, sometimes into the retarded range potential for misdiagnosis again
oReduced IQ because of lost concentration and indifference
oThere is a differentiated response between depressed and mentally retarded person, why is why you can’t
have machines conducting these tests
Motivational symptoms [3]
oParalysis of will
oDon’t want to do anything
oCan lead to a psychomotor retardation not moving at all (catatonic)
Somatic symptoms [4]
oLoss of appetite and sleep disturbance are the most common
oEat less (some eat more); sleep more (some sleep less)
oHave trouble going to sleep and have trouble waking up tell-tale signs of depression
oGetting less than 5 hours sleep deprivation, which leads to poor functioning
oSleep deprivation is stressful, which leads to psychological disorders
oIf you are sleeping more than 9 hours, that is unusual and is typically a sign of depression
Dysthymic disorder
One category of unipolar disorder
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