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Lecture

PSY240 MARCH 23.docx


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H1
Professor
Neil Rector

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PSY240 MARCH 23, 2012
The concept of schizophrenia
- Emil kraeplein 1898 - dementia praecox 0 early onset and deteration
- Dp included paranoia, catatonia (lack of movement) and hebephrenia (aimless disorganized)
- More descriptive then explanatory
- Both European psych
- Dp several different concepts
- Prior to dp clusters were considered separate
- Believed common core between 3 symptoms, marked by early onset and deterring force which
marked decline
- Dementia referring to mental weakness not cognitive
- Major symptoms hallucinations, negativism, emotional dysfucmtion
- No framework how symptoms integrated
- No explanation why were occurring not moving on beyond definition
Eugan blueler 1908 schizophrenia
- More of an attempt to explain the disorder
- Schiz split and phen mind “breaking of the associative threads
- Associated threads = words and thoughts
- Define symptoms futher
- Define core of disorder
- Age of onset and defining features
- Introduced term schizophrenia meaning split mind
- Contrast kraplein
- Core was breaking of ass threads meaning words and thoughts lack of ass
- Current descriptions range is extensive, patients only have some difficulties,
- Heteogrneity of schzio, suggests to sub divide to respect clinical presentation costelation of
symptoms
- Constellations include both positive and negative symptoms
Introd
- Existed almost century lots of attention, still away from understanding disorder
- Disorganized speech, disorder in emotion inaproprate affect and behavior motor activity
- No essential system to have diagnoses
- With disorders criteria, not set criteria for schiz all different not all or one be present, result
hetrogenity in clinical presentation
- Widespread 1 in 100 people some time in lives
Positive symptoms

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- Comprise excess such as hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized speech
- Delusions: are beliefs held contrary to reality, example grandiosity, throught broadcasting
other people can read there thoughts, one half of schizo have delusions delusions not unique to
schizophrenia d elusions other disorders like bipolar disorder and depression and present in
mania typically delusions in schizophrenia may be more bizarre in nature , religgous, and
delusions cate of ideas of reference external environment thingsis related to especially them,
- Hallucinations: distortions of perception, perceptual experience with abscences of external
stimulation usually most in auditory but can occur in all senses, hear one or more voices and
voices offer a running commentary on their behvaiour voices may occur and or command
perform certain actions and are usually mood congruent cosnitent with persons mood If sad
voces critical and rejecting consisted with affect, content is personally related
The definition of a deluision
- A false belief based on incorrect inference about external reality that is firmly sustained despite
what almost everyone else beleieves and depside what constituents incontrovertible and
obvious proof or evidence to the contrary. The belief is not one ordinarily accepted by other
members of the persons culture of subculture ex it is not an article of religious faith (dsm 4 pg
821),
- Different cultures differtn belies about spirts or apparitions, take culture background into
context
Dimensions of delusions
- Pervasiveness
- Conviction believes it
- Significance -
- Intensity severity
- Inflexibility - no room for movement that this may not be the case strongly held belief
Continuity of hallcuintaions
- Regarded as sign of mental illness for 200 years
- Previously message thought of god or devil
- 4 to 25% of population eport hearing voices in lifetime
- Roome and Escher found 40 % of community part who hear voices not actually in treatment
- 30-70% of college students report having had hallucinations
Dsm description of negative symptoms
- Positive are embellishments negative or deficis
- Restrictions in the range and intensity of emotional expression (affective flattening)
- Restrictions in the fluency and productivity of thought and speech (algoia) could produce speech
but is vague repetitive and disorganized
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