o Chills or hot flashed
- Something triggers the flight or fight attack response. Normal symptoms of the
autonomic system, but since they are frightened by it physiological changes. common
symptoms. Tend to be activated through interpersonal conflict situations (marital
familial. Death illness of significant other) before having a panic attack. about 30%
community surveyed actually had a panic attack in the past 12 months
(PDA) or without (PD) Agoraphobia
- Recurrent unexpected panic attacks
- Fear of future attacks. Person worries of a reoccurrence of these attacks
- Worry about the consequences of attacks
- Person changes behavior due to attack. Avoid social contacts
- Agoraphobia: avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult.
- Minimum 4 weeks.
- Frequency 5 and a quarter percent.
Behavioral model of anxiety:
- Neutral event (going to a movie) has become associated with a traumatic event/media
information (news article about panic adults increases heart attack)/vicarious
experience (seen other family members). This elicits greater anxiety increase. They
avoidance and the feel better so anxiety decrease. But this gets reinforced and the
person will be more prone to avoid the situation.
- Panic apex anxiety (high point curve) want to leave which brings anxiety. After
activation of autonomic system, and a synthetic nervous system sends messenger to
kill the anxiety after 20 minutes, this is called the habituation curve. Solution talk
A. Defining panic attacks and panic disorder
B. Clinical aspects of panic
C. Videotape of patient with panic disorder
3. Cognitive Model of Panic
Extended cognitive model of panic
- Panic disorder is caused by the unfolding of a vicious cycle. Internal (rapid heart rate)
or external (going into a movie theatre where a previous attack occurred). Appraises
that there is something wrong (activates emotion of fear which activated the
autonomic system) person begins to focus on these sensations, intensification of
sensations, catastrophic misrepresentation and panic eventually avoidance and safety
- David Clark leading model of understanding what is happening in panic disorder.
Suicide estimate rate 20%.
Why does normal panic become panic disorder?
Because of catastrophic misinterpretations:
- Heart attack
- Nervous collapse
- Going crazy