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PSY240H1 Lecture Notes - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Twin, Mania

Course Code
Hywel Morgan

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Lecture 2
Sept 19, 2012
Last Class
Abnormal Behaviour can be defined in 4 ways
Statistical criteria
Cultural norms
Developmental norms
Frequency, intensity, duration
Looking for behaviours that interfere with daily functioning
Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment
This Class
Etiology: The study of the causes and prevalence of abnormal behaviour
Etiological models of abnormal behaviour
Medical-disease models (aka the Biological model)
Genetic models
There is a clear genetic component to some of these disorders.
Schizophrenia vs. Depression
Schizophrenia (and depression) are genetically tied and if you have
someone in the family with one of these, the chances of you getting it is
much higher
The concordance rate in schizophrenia is 50%, the rest is up to
environmental factors (most importantly, it’s stress)
The only mental disorder that is CLEARLY biological and clearly understood is
schizophrenia. (This also has a genetic component)
Depression is similar (and is also genetic.)
Schizophrenia CANNOT be treated with psychotherapy like depression can; it is
VERY CLEARLY a biological disorder.
Depression: The concordance rate is 80% (higher than it is for schizophrenia)
Doesn’t always respond well to the same drug for each person, unlike
Schizophrenia meds: They are molecules that are mimicking neurotransmitters and
manipulating their levels in the brain. There is too much dopamine in the brain of a
schizophrenic, while the drugs most important in treating depression is serotonin
(depressed people have too little serotonin).
These two neurotransmitters are very similar, slightly different,
Can be studied through monozygotic twin studies through concordance
Stress is a SIGNIFICANT contributing factor to psychopathologies
Biochemical models
Neurophysiological models
Zeitgeist: The way of the
Homeostasis is the function
of the thalamus.
First insane asylum: used to
charge admission, it was an
entertainment event
Malingering: trying to look

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Psychoanalytic models
Social/Environmental models
Sociocultural models
Emphasises social and cultural determinants. The “stressors”
#1 stressor in the environment: Death in the family
There is a scale from 1-100 and death in the immediate family gets a score of 100
Other significant stressors:
Ending/Starting a significant relationship
Losing or obtaining a job (Socio-Economic Status= SES)
Evidence for these stressor models come from depression studies
Learning models
Work form Pavlov and Thorndike
Conditioning studies
And Skinner that showed that our environment molds who we are
This model views behaviour as primarily determined by learning
I.e. we believe that we are worthless because it’s what we’ve learned, so
the therapy for this would be to relearn (Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy=
Humanistic models
The humanistic paradigm of human psychology; the touchy-feely part
This is where you are taught that you are worthy, good, and loved.
This explores the individuals’ reaction to themselves and the individuals around
Explores the exploration of feelings and such
Carl Rogers is a leading figure in this stuff.
Assessment in Psychology
What are the tools that we use to assess what it is?
Come in 3 major “categories”
1. The Interview
Most prominent in the assessment of adult psychopathology
The most telling way of determining psychopathology is what’s called “self-report’; an
ask-and-tell method
The biggest issues here are deception, of course
The process of being seen by a mental health professional is brought about by the first
stage, Referral
In an emergency room, this is called a ‘triage’.
There is usually an indication from the dedication level of the person coming in to
be seen
If someone is being brought by a law enforcement officer, their
motivation/dedication would be very low.
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