Textbook note-Chapter 13-Childhood Disorders Mar 16

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16 Aug 2010
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PSY240 Notes: March 16
Chapter 13: Childhood Disorders
Childhood disorders
๎€ 1/3 of all children suffer from emotional/behavioural disorder by the time they are 16
๎€ resilient children: children who face major stressors but do not develop severe psychological
problems
๎€ study of childhood disorders known as: developmental psychopathology
Behaviour Disorders
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
๎€ aka. ADHD
๎€ Combined type: >6 symptoms of inattention & >6 symptoms of hyperactivity
๎€ Predominantly inattention type: >6 symptoms of inattention & <6 symptoms of hyperactivity
๎€ Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type: >6 symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity & <6
symptoms of inattention
๎€ 25% of children with ADHD have learning disabilities
๎€ 1-7% prevalence rate
๎€ most children grow out of AHDH
Biological Contributors to ADHD
๎€ frontal lobe, caudate nucleus within the base of the basal ganglia and the corpus collosum are
implicated
๎€ dopamine neurotransmitter implicated
๎€ 10-35% of immediate family member also have ADHD
๎€ prenatal and birth complications also contribute to ADHD
Treatment for ADHD
๎€ stimulant drugs such as Ritalin are commonly prescribed to ppl with ADHD
๎€ 70-85% response rate by decreasing disruptive behaviour
๎€ work by increasing dopamine levels in the synapse
๎€ side effects include increase in tic behaviour
๎€ antidepressants may also be used for children who have both depressive symptoms and ADHD (less
effective in treating ADHD than stimulant drugs)
๎€ drugs effecting norepinephrine level: clonidine and guanfacine ยฑ they can help reduce tics
Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder
๎€ engaging in serious transgressions of societal norms for behaviour
๎€ 3-7% prevalence rate
๎€ DSM criteria: pg. 471 table13.5
๎€ oppositional defiant disorder
๎€ less severe case of chronic conduct disorder: does not destroy property, are not aggressive
toward people or animals, and does not show pattern of theft and deceit
๎€ DSM criteria: pg. 472 table 13.6
๎€ begins early in toddlers and preschool
๎€ some children outgrow the disorder, others go on to develop conduct disorder
๎€ boys 3X more likely to develop both disorders
Biological Contributors to Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder
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๎€ both are heritable disorders
๎€ frontal lobe implicated
๎€ neurological deficits comes from exposure to neurotoxins and drugs while in the womb or pre-
school years
๎€ low cortisol levels in children diagnosed
๎€ increase in testosterone level also correlated with violent behaviour
Cognitive Contributors to Conduct Disorder
๎€ process information in ways which promote aggressive interactions
๎€ ex. they go into social situations thinking other children will be mean to them
๎€ this leads to aggressive behaviour and repercussion of aggressive behaviour from authority and
other which feeds the cognitive assumptions from the beginning
Drug Therapies for Conduct Disorder
๎€ anti-depressant drugs (SSRI especially) prescribed
๎€ stimulant drugs suppress aggressive behaviour
๎€ mood stabilizers may also be used
Psychological and Social Therapies for Conduct and Oppositional Defiant Disorders
๎€ CBT is effective and have long term positive effects if they are started early in a disturbed child's
life
๎€ African American and European American have same rate of conduct disorder but Aa have lower
rate for opppositional defiant disorder than EA
Separation Anxiety Disoder
๎€ children does not want to be separated from their caregiver
๎€ 3% prevalence rate for children under 11
๎€ more common in girls than boys
๎€ DSM criteria on pg. 479 table 13.7
๎€ in order to be diagnosed must at least show symoptoms for 4 weeks and must significantly
impair child's functioning
Biological Contributors to SAD
๎€ children born with behavioural inhiition tend to be introverted and develop SAD as a result
Psychological and Sociocultural Contributors to Separation Anxiety Disorder
๎€ SAD may develop after traumatic event such as getting lost in a mall
๎€ parents may contributed to the development of SAD by being overly protective
Treatment for SAD
๎€ CBT is effective both short term and long term
๎€ many different kinds of drugs are used such as antidepressants, antianxiety, and stimulant, and
SSRI drugs
Elmination Disorders
Enuresis
๎€ children over the age of 5 who wet their bed or cloth at least 2X per week for 3 month
๎€ prevalence decrease with age
๎€ runs in the family due to urinary tract infections or biological predispositions
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