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Lecture

Textbook note-Chapter 13-Childhood Disorders Mar 16


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H1
Professor
Neil Rector

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PSY240 Notes: March 16
Chapter 13: Childhood Disorders
Childhood disorders
1/3 of all children suffer from emotional/behavioural disorder by the time they are 16
resilient children: children who face major stressors but do not develop severe psychological
problems
study of childhood disorders known as: developmental psychopathology
Behaviour Disorders
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
aka. ADHD
Combined type: >6 symptoms of inattention & >6 symptoms of hyperactivity
Predominantly inattention type: >6 symptoms of inattention & <6 symptoms of hyperactivity
Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type: >6 symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity & <6
symptoms of inattention
25% of children with ADHD have learning disabilities
1-7% prevalence rate
most children grow out of AHDH
Biological Contributors to ADHD
frontal lobe, caudate nucleus within the base of the basal ganglia and the corpus collosum are
implicated
dopamine neurotransmitter implicated
10-35% of immediate family member also have ADHD
prenatal and birth complications also contribute to ADHD
Treatment for ADHD
stimulant drugs such as Ritalin are commonly prescribed to ppl with ADHD
70-85% response rate by decreasing disruptive behaviour
work by increasing dopamine levels in the synapse
side effects include increase in tic behaviour
antidepressants may also be used for children who have both depressive symptoms and ADHD (less
effective in treating ADHD than stimulant drugs)
drugs effecting norepinephrine level: clonidine and guanfacine ± they can help reduce tics
Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder
engaging in serious transgressions of societal norms for behaviour
3-7% prevalence rate
DSM criteria: pg. 471 table13.5
oppositional defiant disorder
less severe case of chronic conduct disorder: does not destroy property, are not aggressive
toward people or animals, and does not show pattern of theft and deceit
DSM criteria: pg. 472 table 13.6
begins early in toddlers and preschool
some children outgrow the disorder, others go on to develop conduct disorder
boys 3X more likely to develop both disorders
Biological Contributors to Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder
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both are heritable disorders
frontal lobe implicated
neurological deficits comes from exposure to neurotoxins and drugs while in the womb or pre-
school years
low cortisol levels in children diagnosed
increase in testosterone level also correlated with violent behaviour
Cognitive Contributors to Conduct Disorder
process information in ways which promote aggressive interactions
ex. they go into social situations thinking other children will be mean to them
this leads to aggressive behaviour and repercussion of aggressive behaviour from authority and
other which feeds the cognitive assumptions from the beginning
Drug Therapies for Conduct Disorder
anti-depressant drugs (SSRI especially) prescribed
stimulant drugs suppress aggressive behaviour
mood stabilizers may also be used
Psychological and Social Therapies for Conduct and Oppositional Defiant Disorders
CBT is effective and have long term positive effects if they are started early in a disturbed child's
life
African American and European American have same rate of conduct disorder but Aa have lower
rate for opppositional defiant disorder than EA
Separation Anxiety Disoder
children does not want to be separated from their caregiver
3% prevalence rate for children under 11
more common in girls than boys
DSM criteria on pg. 479 table 13.7
in order to be diagnosed must at least show symoptoms for 4 weeks and must significantly
impair child's functioning
Biological Contributors to SAD
children born with behavioural inhiition tend to be introverted and develop SAD as a result
Psychological and Sociocultural Contributors to Separation Anxiety Disorder
SAD may develop after traumatic event such as getting lost in a mall
parents may contributed to the development of SAD by being overly protective
Treatment for SAD
CBT is effective both short term and long term
many different kinds of drugs are used such as antidepressants, antianxiety, and stimulant, and
SSRI drugs
Elmination Disorders
Enuresis
children over the age of 5 who wet their bed or cloth at least 2X per week for 3 month
prevalence decrease with age
runs in the family due to urinary tract infections or biological predispositions
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