Class Notes (922,613)
CA (542,889)
UTSG (45,883)
PSY (3,659)
PSY240H1 (253)
S.Cassin (41)
Lecture

Chapter notes

23 Pages
50 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H1
Professor
S.Cassin

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 23 pages of the document.
Chapter 12: Personality
-Personality: all the ways we have of acting, thinking, believing, and feeling that
make each of us unique
Personality trait=complex pattern of behavior, thought and feeling that is
stable across time and across many situations
1. DEFINING AND DIAGNOSING PERSONALITY DISORDERS
-Personality disorder: long-standing pattern of maladaptive behaviors, thoughts
and feelings
Symptoms must be shown by adult since adolescence or early adulthood
DSM: diagnosed in separate Axis, Axis 2 instead of Axis 1 w/ acute disorders
-Often comorbidity w/ personality disorder and acute disorders (major
depression, substance abuse); hard to see behaviors that constitute their personality
disorder as maladaptive therefore, usually see clinician once they have major
depression/substance abuse and problems w/ relationships
-DSM4 groups personality disorders in 3 clusters:
Cluster A: Odd-eccentric personality disorders
oFeatures of schizophrenia but ppl w/ this disorder not psychotic
(maintain grasp of reality): inappropriate/flat affect, odd thought +
speech pattern, paranoia (i.e. become suspicious of ppl/speak in odd
ways ppl cant understand)
Cluster B: Dramatic-Erratic Personality Disorder
oFeatures dramatic, erratic, emotional behavior and interpersonal
relationships
oManipulative volatile, uncaring in social relationships, prone to
impulsive/violent behavior that show little regard for their safety/safety
of others, behave in wild and exaggerated ways, try to gain attn
(suicidal attempts)
Cluster C: Anxious-Fearful Personality Disorder
oAnxious-fearful emotions and chronic self-doubt
oConcerned w/ being criticized/abandoned by others, little self-
confidence and difficult relationships with other s
1.1 Problems with the DSM Categories
-Highly controversial: b/c of problems in conceptualizing and organization of
disorders and ways of assessing them
-Lively and Jackson:
A. DSM treats disorders as categories
www.notesolution.com
Disorder described as if it represents something qualitatively different from a
“normalpersonality but in reality, just extreme versions of normal personality
traits
Axis 2 disorders represent a restricted list of normal personality traits; overlap
in axis 2 is b/c of common underlying traits
B. Overlap in the diagnostic criteria for various personality disorders
Ppl diagnosed for 1 disorder meet the criteria for at least 1 more personality
disorder; hard to have reliable diagnoses
There may be fewer personality disorders that account for the variation in
personality disorder symptoms
C. Diagnosing a personality disorder often requires information that is hard for a
clinician to obtain
Info needed: how individual treats others, how individual behaves in variety of
situations, stability of behavior since childhood, etc.
Clinicians must observe behavior and infer which traits are responsible for
manifestations
D. Personality disorders are conceptualized as stable characteristics of an
individual
Longitudinal studies: ppl diagnosed w/ disorders vary over time in how many
symptoms they exhibit and severity of these symptoms, so they go in and out
of the diagnosis over time
Personality disorder symptoms seem to diminish when axis 1 disorder
symptoms subside
Axis 2 disorders include assessment of features that are stable, personality
disorders built into this diagnostic
-Problems: reliability of diagnosis, hard to do research on personality disorders
(less research on epidemiology, causes, treatments)
-Merits of categorical vs. dimensional models of personality disorders
1.2 Gender and Ethnic Biases in Construction and Application
-Differences in gender and ethnicity for personality disorders results from biases
in the construction of these disorders/clinicians application to the diagnostic criteria
-Biases:
A. Kaplan: Diagnoses are extreme versions of negative stereotypes of
womens/mens personalities
Women=Histrionic, dependent and borderline personality disorders:
flamboyant behaviors, emotionality, dependence on others
www.notesolution.com
Men=antisocial, paranoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder:
violent, hostile, controlling
Clinicians may be too quick to see these characteristics in women /men and
apply these diagnoses
B. Not recognizing that the expressions of the symptoms of a disorder may
naturally vary between groups
I.E. women with antisocial personality disorder are less likely than men w/ the
disorder to engage in such overt antisocial behavior (callous, cruel,
committing crimes)
Ethnic groups, European North Americans, are better able to hide their
symptoms of callous and cruel behavior b/c they hold more social power and
can exercise tendencies in ways that are more acceptable
Gender differences in childhood precursor to antisocial personality disorder:
conduct disorder
DSM4 downplays masculine ways of expressing dependent, histrionic and
borderline personality disorder
oWording of criterion: histrionic personality disorder “consistently uses
physical appearance to draw attention to one self
C.Based in application
Too quick to see histrionic, dependent and borderline personality disorders in
women or antisocial personality disorders in men
Research shows that clinicians presented w/ description of a person who
exhibits many of the symptoms, more likely to make diagnosis if person is
female for histrionic
Clinicians misapplying DSM
-Widiger: structured interviews vs. unstructured should be used in assessing
personality disorders
Structured interviews vs. unstructured should be used in assessing
personality disorders
oIncreases chances of DSM applied systematically fairly to men, women
and ppl of various ethnic groups
oShow less gender bias vs. studies w/ unstructured interviews but still
greater number of females in the described disorders and more men in
antisocial personality disorder
oStructured interview vs. self report: produce similar results
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter 12: Personality -Personality: all the ways we have of acting, thinking, believing, and feeling that make each of us unique Personality trait=complex pattern of behavior, thought and feeling that is stable across time and across many situations 1. DEFINING AND DIAGNOSING PERSONALITY DISORDERS -Personality disorder: long-standing pattern of maladaptive behaviors, thoughts and feelings Symptoms must be shown by adult since adolescence or early adulthood DSM: diagnosed in separate Axis, Axis 2 instead of Axis 1 w/ acute disorders -Often comorbidity w/ personality disorder and acute disorders (major depression, substance abuse); hard to see behaviors that constitute their personality disorder as maladaptive therefore, usually see clinician once they have major depression/substance abuse and problems w/ relationships -DSM4 groups personality disorders in 3 clusters: Cluster A: Odd-eccentric personality disorders o Features of schizophrenia but ppl w/ this disorder not psychotic (maintain grasp of reality): inappropriate/flat affect, odd thought + speech pattern, paranoia (i.e. become suspicious of ppl/speak in odd ways ppl cant understand) Cluster B: Dramatic-Erratic Personality Disorder o Features dramatic, erratic, emotional behavior and interpersonal relationships o Manipulative volatile, uncaring in social relationships, prone to impulsive/violent behavior that show little regard for their safety/safety of others, behave in wild and exaggerated ways, try to gain attn (suicidal attempts) Cluster C: Anxious-Fearful Personality Disorder o Anxious-fearful emotions and chronic self-doubt o Concerned w/ being criticized/abandoned by others, little self- confidence and difficult relationships with other s 1.1 Problems with the DSM Categories -Highly controversial: b/c of problems in conceptualizing and organization of disorders and ways of assessing them -Lively and Jackson: A. DSM treats disorders as categories www.notesolution.com Disorder described as if it represents something qualitatively different from a normal personality but in reality, just extreme versions of normal personality traits Axis 2 disorders represent a restricted list of normal personality traits; overlap in axis 2 is b/c of common underlying traits B. Overlap in the diagnostic criteria for various personality disorders Ppl diagnosed for 1 disorder meet the criteria for at least 1 more personality disorder; hard to have reliable diagnoses There may be fewer personality disorders that account for the variation in personality disorder symptoms C. Diagnosing a personality disorder often requires information that is hard for a clinician to obtain Info needed: how individual treats others, how individual behaves in variety of situations, stability of behavior since childhood, etc. Clinicians must observe behavior and infer which traits are responsible for manifestations D. Personality disorders are conceptualized as stable characteristics of an individual Longitudinal studies: ppl diagnosed w/ disorders vary over time in how many symptoms they exhibit and severity of these symptoms, so they go in and out of the diagnosis over time Personality disorder symptoms seem to diminish when axis 1 disorder symptoms subside Axis 2 disorders include assessment of features that are stable, personality disorders built into this diagnostic -Problems: reliability of diagnosis, hard to do research on personality disorders (less research on epidemiology, causes, treatments) -Merits of categorical vs. dimensional models of personality disorders 1.2 Gender and Ethnic Biases in Construction and Application -Differences in gender and ethnicity for personality disorders results from biases in the construction of these disorders/clinicians application to the diagnostic criteria -Biases: A. Kaplan: Diagnoses are extreme versions of negative stereotypes of womens/mens personalities Women=Histrionic, dependent and borderline personality disorders: flamboyant behaviors, emotionality, dependence on others www.notesolution.com Men=antisocial, paranoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: violent, hostile, controlling Clinicians may be too quick to see these characteristics in women /men and apply these diagnoses B. Not recognizing that the expressions of the symptoms of a disorder may naturally vary between groups I.E. women with antisocial personality disorder are less likely than men w/ the disorder to engage in such overt antisocial behavior (callous, cruel, committing crimes) Ethnic groups, European North Americans, are better able to hide their symptoms of callous and cruel behavior b/c they hold more social power and can exercise tendencies in ways that are more acceptable Gender differences in childhood precursor to antisocial personality disorder: conduct disorder DSM4 downplays masculine ways of expressing dependent, histrionic and borderline personality disorder o Wording of criterion: histrionic personality disorder consistently uses physical appearance to draw attention to one self C.Based in application Too quick to see histrionic, dependent and borderline personality disorders in women or antisocial personality disorders in men Research shows that clinicians presented w/ description of a person who exhibits many of the symptoms, more likely to make diagnosis if person is female for histrionic Clinicians misapplying DSM -Widiger: structured interviews vs. unstructured should be used in assessing personality disorders Structured interviews vs. unstructured should be used in assessing personality disorders o Increases chances of DSM applied systematically fairly to men, women and ppl of various ethnic groups o Show less gender bias vs. studies w/ unstructured interviews but still greater number of females in the described disorders and more men in antisocial personality disorder o Structured interview vs. self report: produce similar results www.notesolution.com -Kaplan: DSM4 should be balanced to include equal # of symptoms and diagnoses that are variants of masculine and feminine personality traits Tried w/ masculine forms of dependency and feminine versions of masculine symptoms BUT DSM should strive for greater balance in pathologizing men and women -If diagnostic constructs yield equal numbers of men and women w/ each disorder/equal numbers of ppl in different ethnic groups, doesnt mean that criteria reflect the true structure and distribution of personality disorders in ppl 2. ODD-ECCENTRIC PERSONALITY DISORDERS -Odd-eccentric personality disorder: behave in ways that are similar to behaviors of people with schizophrenia or paranoid psychotic disorder, but they retain their grasp on reality to a greater degree compared to psychotic ppl - Inappropriate/flat affect, odd thought + speech pattern, paranoia (i.e. become suspicious of ppl/speak in odd ways ppl cant understand); have unusual beliefs/experiences that fall short of delusions and hallucinations -May be precursors to schizophrenia/mild versions of schizophrenia -Often occur in ppl who have 1 degree relatives with schizophrenia 2.1 Paranoid Personality Disorder -Paranoid Personality disorder: pervasive and unwarranted mistrust of others that is maladaptive -Believe ppl are chronically trying to deceive/exploit them or are preoccupied with concerns a bout loyalty/trustworthiness of others -Hypervigilant for confirming evidence of their suspicions; penetrating observers of situations, note details that most ppl miss -Consider these events meaningful and try to decipher these clues about ppls true intentions -Sensitive to criticism/potential criticism -Misinterpret/overinterpret situations in line w/ their situations (i.e. wifes cheerfulness=affair ) -Resistant to rational arguments about their suspicions (every1 arguing against them=evidence of conspiracy against them) -Weak relationship w/ schizophrenia Prevalence and Prognosis -0.5-5.6% have this disorder (U.S.; no Cdn stats b/c focus on antisocial personality disorder) www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit