Personality disorder: long-standing pattern of maladaptive behaviors, thoughts and feelings: symptoms must be shown by adult since adolescence or early adulthood, dsm: diagnosed in separate axis, axis 2 instead of axis 1 w/ acute disorders. Often comorbidity w/ personality disorder and acute disorders (major depression, substance abuse); hard to see behaviors that constitute their personality disorder as maladaptive therefore, usually see clinician once they have major depression/substance abuse and problems w/ relationships. Highly controversial: b/c of problems in conceptualizing and organization of disorders and ways of assessing them. Lively and jackson: dsm treats disorders as categories www. notesolution. com, disorder described as if it represents something qualitatively different from a. Problems: reliability of diagnosis, hard to do research on personality disorders (less research on epidemiology, causes, treatments) Merits of categorical vs. dimensional models of personality disorders. 1. 2 gender and ethnic biases in construction and application.