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Lecture 8

PSY260H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Baddeley'S Model Of Working Memory, Long-Term Memory, Papez Circuit


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY260H1
Professor
Martin Ralph
Lecture
8

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Information*that*we*receive*travels*different*parts*of*the*brain*and*it*is*
subject*to*conditioning*along*the*way
Sensory*input*carried*by*ascending*activating*systems
Sensory*information*coming*into*the*brain*activating*thalamus*and*
hypothalamus*-creates*a*tension*in*the*physiological*level
Target*regions*are*activated*simultaneously*and*focus*on*various*attributes*of*
the*stimuli
Output*-creates*emotion*or*motion*away*or*towards*the*stimuli
Diagram:
When*you*reach*cortical*levels,*you*start*seeing*things*explicitly* -essence*of*
learning*and*memory
Processing*of*this*information*depends*upon*the*emotional*content*of*the*
information*and*the*stage*of*individual*during*the*learning*process
From*moment*to*moment,*you*don't*always*feel*something*-but*the*
brain*is*still*working,*allows*us*to*go*about*without*making*decisions*
every*step*of*the*way
Emotional*context
Physiological*need
Activation*of*papez*circuit*-anterior*thalamus,*cingulate*cortex,*
hippocampus*and*hypothalamus
§
Papez*circuit,*amygdala
Autonomic*nervous*system
Context*relationships*hippocampus,*amygdala
Emotional*and*state-dependent*regulation*and*memory
Graph*2:
Central*system*receive*information*from*the*ambient*world
Messages*are*sent*to*peripheral*systems,*changing*peripheral*activity
System*in*our*brain*that*allows*us*to*discriminate*between*what*has*gone*
before*and*what*is*happening*now
There*has*to*be*an*integration*(plasticity)*-association*of*stimulus
We*become*aware*of*what*is*going*on
Divergence*-accounts*for*the*information*that*are*accessible*consciously*(we*
have*a*memory*about*the*emotion*itself)*and*inaccessible*(emotional*memory)
Medial*temporal*lobe*memory*system
Conscious*memory*about*emotion*-allows*the*organism*to*determine*their*
relationship*to*the*stimuli
Unconscious*memory*-amygdala
The*active*and*temporary*representation*of*information*that*is*
maintained*for*the*short*term*memory
Type*of*memory*where*we*have*things*that*are*temporarily*stored*that*
we*work*up*to*integrate*to*other*memories*stored*in*the*brain
Temporary*retention*of*information*just*experienced* or*just*retrieved*
from*the*long-term*memory
Every*moment*of*the*day
You*cannot*revisit*as*an*episode*-the*brain*has*to*reconstruct*the*whole*
memory
Cognitive*control*-the*manipulation*and*application*of*working*memory*
for*planning,*task*switching,*attention,*stimulus*selection,*and*the*
inhibition*of*inappropriate*reflexive*behaviours
Manipulation*of*the*working*memory*allows*for*control*of*various*aspects*
of*higher-order*cognition
Working(memory -initial* acquisition*of*information*from*sensory*input*(short*
term)
Sensory(memory -information*automatically*and*rapidly*decays*
(sensations*of*what*you*have*just*perceived*when*you*have*seen,*heard,*
touched,*smelled,*or*tasted*something)
The*site*of*working*memory*operations
§
This*memory*is*also*limited*to*what*you*can*pay*attention*to
§
Chunking*-is*an*essential*tool*for*controlling*our*short-term*
memory*and*using*it*effectively*to*store,*temporarily,*as*much*
information*as*possible
§
Short-term(memory -information*can*be*maintained*as*long*as*it*is*
rehearsed*or*consciously*attended*to
Transient(memories -are*short-lasting*mental*representations,*sometimes*
persistent*for*only*a*few*seconds
Defined*by*duration,*function*and*underlying*mechanism
Memories*can*be*retained*for*long*periods,*possibly*permanent,*without*
requiring*ongoing*maintenance*or*conscious*attention
Long-term(memory -laying*down*of*traces*that*have*been*and*worked*for*us,*
and*are*accessible* for*a*long*time*(episodic*and*semantic)
Short&versus&long&term&memory&(with&working&and&sensory&memory)
Explicit* memory*-are*memories*that*are*consciously*accessible*that*we*can*
remember
Implicit*memory*-memory*that*you*may*not*be*aware*you've*acquired
Explicit&vs.&Implicit
Declarative* memory*-we*are*aware*of*accessing*consciously*and*are*easily*
verbalized*(episodic*and*semantic)
Somewhat*temporary*that*can*be*revisited*-involves*the*
hippocampus
§
Revisited*as*an*episode
§
Episodic*memory*are*autobiographical*-the*event*you*recall* must*
have*happened*to*you
§
Episodic*-memory*of*an*event;*every*time*we*walk*down*the*hall*we*are*
creating*events
Semantic*-memory*of*things,*stored*in*different*locations*depending*on*
how*often*things*are*needed
Semantic*vs.*Episodic*(long*term)
Non-declarative*memory*-not*always*easy*to*communicate*(skill*learning)
Declarative&vs.&Non-declarative
The*even*is*first*buffered*in*working*memory,*in*prefrontal*cortex
Then*its*replayed*to*the*hippocampus,*which*is*involved*in*storing*the*event*in*
episodic*memory
WM*involves*frontal*cortex*and*the*temporoparietal*junction
The*basic*idea
Skilled*memory*are*difficult*to*explain*in*words
Skilled*vs.*Memory*for*Events*and*Facts
Working*memory*refers*to*a*brain*system*that*provides*temporary*storage*and*
manipulation*of*the*information*necessary*for*such*complex*cognitive*tasks*as*
language,*comprehension,*learning*and*reasoning
Mental*workspace*for*storing*and*manipulating*visual*and*spatial*
information
§
The*visuospatial*sketch*pad -holds*visual*and*spatial*images*for*
manipulation
The*phonological*loop -holds*auditory*memories,*maintaining*them*by*
means*of*internal*(subvocal)*speech*rehearsal
Short-term*memory*buffers:*(stored*separately in*working*memory)*-
responsible*for*the*maintenance
Monitors*and*manipulates*both*of*these*working-memory*buffers,*
providing*cognitive*control*of*working*memory
Includes*adding*to*and*deleting*from*these*items*in*the*buffers,*selecting*
among*the*items*in*order*to*guide*behaviour,*retrieving*information*from*
long-term*memory,*and*transferring*information*from*the*visuospatial*
sketchpad*and*phonological*loop*to*long-term*memory
This*includes*adding*and*removing*items,*reordering*items,*and*using*
working*memory*to*guide*other*behaviours
Controlled*updating*of*short-term*memory*buffers*-updates*working*
memory*by*receiving*and*evaluating*sensory*information,*moving*items*
into*and*retrieving*them*from*long-term*memory,*deciding*which*
memories*are*needed*for*which*tasks
Setting*goals*and*planning
Task*swtiching
The(central(executive -controls*attention*(responsible*for*the*manipulation*of*
information*in*short-term*memory)
Baddeley*episodic*buffer
Delayed*nonmatch-to-sample*task
Baddeley's&model&of&working&memory
Updates*working*memory*by*receiving*and*evaluating*sensory*
information,*moving*items*into*and*retrieving*them*from*long-term*
memory,*and*deciding*which*memories*are*needed*for*which*tasks
§
The*central*executive* needs*to*keep*track*of*the*various*everyday*
tasks*you*need*to*perform
§
Controlled*updating*of*short-term*memory*buffers
Central*executive*is*responsible*for*the*keeping*track*of*goals,*
planning*how*to*achieve*them*and*determining*priorities
§
Setting*goals*and*planning
Paying*attention*to*the*task*currently*attended*to*while*at*the*same*
time*monitoring*external*cues*for*information*that*may*signal*the*
need*to*switch*to*another*task
§
Task*switching
Central*executive*inhibits*habitual*response*that*he*has*developed*
and*shift*his*attention*to*an*alternative,*context-specific*rule
§
Stimulus*attention*and*response*inhibition
Cognitive*control*is*essential*to:
Cognitive&Control
Same*concept*that*working*memory*uses*-bringing*in*things*that*we*want*to*
hold*as*a*memory*just*in*case*we*need*to*do*something*about*it
Notion*of*chunking -our*working*memory*has*a*capacity*to*work*only*on*certain*
things*at*a*time*in*a*linear* manner
It*does*so*by*synthesizing*external*and*internal*information*needed*to*
guide*complex*behaviours
Intellectual*functions*of*planning,*foresight,*decision*making*and*related*
behaviours
Damage*to*the*PFC*of*war*veterans*caused*impairment*in*their*higher*
intellectual* abilities*(to*plan*and*to*organize)
PFC*holds*in*mid*the*information*needed*to*make*later*responses*and*
that*the*neural*activity*in*the*PFC*was*acting*as*a*temporal*bridge*
between*stimulus*and*cues
Active*when*people*recall*past*events
§
DLPFC -remembering*the*stimulus*location*(monitoring*the*information*
in*working*memory)
Cortical*speech*and*visual*areas -maintenance*functions*for*verbal*and*
object*or*location*information
VLPFC-supports*active*rehearsal*and*maintenance*functions
Prefrontal(cortex-critical* for*initiating*executive*functions*and*cognitive*
controls*(working*memory*and*executive*control)
Creates*associations*amongst*the*attributes*-spatial,*sound,*state*of*the*
organism*etc
Dentate*gyrus -responsible*for*the*discrimination
Hippocampus -determine*if*the*information*is*important*enough*to*retain*as*a*
memory
Brain&Substrates
Read&Chapter&7
A*memory*for*a*specific*autobiographical*event
Includes*information*about*the*spatial*and*temporal*context*-where*and*when*
the*event*occurred
Can*be*communicated*flexibly
Is*consciously*accessible
Episodic&Memory
Memories*for*facts*and*general*knowledge*about*the*world*-as*well*as*for*
personal*information*such*as*your*own*name*and*your*favorite*food
Not*tagged*with*time*and*space*
Can*also*be*communicated*flexibly
Is*consciously*accessible
Semantic&Memory
Depth-of-processing(effect -deeper*processing*at*encoding*of*new*information*
improves*the*ability*to*remember*that*information*later
It*is*also*easier*toe*remember*information*if*you*can*relate*it*to*things*you*
already*know
Encoding&New&Memories
Transfer-appropriate*processing*effect*-finding*that*retrieval*is*more*likely*to*be*
successful*if*the*cues*available*at*recall*are*similar*to*those*that*were*available*
at*encoding
Free(recall -you*are*asked*an*open-ended*question*and*you*supply*the*answer*
from*memory
Cued(recall -you*are*given*some*kind*of*a*prompt*or*clue*to*the*correct*answer
Recognition -you*pick*out*the*correct*answer*from*a*list*of*possible*options*
Retrieving&Existing&Memories
Directed(forgetting -when*information*is*forgotten*on*demand*or*intentionally
Proactive*interference*-old*information*can*disrupt*new*learning
Retroactive*interference*-new*information*can*disrupt*old*learning
Interference-when*two*memories*overlap*in*content,*the*strength*of*either*or*
both*memories*may*be*reduced
Source*amnesia -we*remember*information*but*cannot*remember*the*
source*at*all
Cryptomnesia -mistaken*thinks*that*his*thoughts*are*novel*or*original*
when*he's**actually*remembering*information*he*learned*somewhere*else
Misattribution -we*remember*information*but*mistakenly*associate*it*with*an*
incorrect*source
False(memories -memories*of*events*that*never*actually*happened
When&Memory&Fails
Cerebral(cortex -divided*into*sensory*cortex*(somatosensory,*auditory,*visual)
Thus,*cerebral* cortex*is*a*primary*storage*for*many*kinds*of*semantic*
information
Association(cortex-involved*in*associating*information*within*and*across*
modalities
Auditory(agnosia(of(speech -they*can*hear*but*cannot*understand*the*
meaning*of*spoken*words
Associative(visual(agnosia -have*difficulty*recognizing*and*naming*objects*
they*can*see
Tactile(agnosia -cannot*describe*the*object*they*are*touching*although*
they*know*it*by*sight
Cortical*damage*may*lead*to*agnosia*-relatively*selective* disruption*of*the*
ability*to*process*a*particular*kind*of*semantic*information
Hippocampus -storage*of*new*episodic*and*semantic*memory*(mostly*
about*autobiographical,*episodic*events)
Damage*to*the*hippocampus*(bilateral*medial*temporal*lobe)*causes*
anterograde*amnesia -the*loss*of*ability*to*form*new*episodic*and*
semantic*memory
Entorhinal*cortex*and*perirhinal*cortex*-responsible*for*semantic*learning
Following*a*pattern*known*as*Ribot*gradient*-loss*is*worst*for*
events*that*occurred*shortly*after*the*injury*than*for*events*that*
occurred*in*the*distant*past
§
Retrograde*amnesia*-loss*of*memories*for*events*that*occurred*after*the*
injury
Medial(temporal(lobe contains*the*hippocampus,*amygdala*and*nearby*cortical*
areas*(entorhinal*cortex,*and*perirhinal* cortex)
Initially,*all*off*the*areas*of*the*cortex*carrying*many*components*of*the*
episodic*are*linked*together*via*the*hippocampus*into*unified*episodic*
memory
Over*time,*through*the*process*of*consolidation,*the*components*can*
form*direct*connections*with*one*another*and*no*longer*need*
hippocampal*mediation
Standard&consolidation&theory -the*hippocampus*and*related*medial*temporal*
love*structures*are*required*for*the*initial* storage*and*retrieval*of*an*episodic*
memory*as*consisting*of*many*components
Multiple&memory&trace&theory -episodic*memory*are*encoded*by*an*ensemble*
of*hippocampal*and*cortical*networks,*and*the*cortical*networks*never,*in*
normal*circumstances,*become*fully*independent*of*the*hippocampal*networks
Frontal&cortex -help*determine*what*information*we*store*and*remember*and*
what*information*we*don't*store*and*forget
Basal&forebrain -help*guide*how*the*hippocampus*stores*new*information
Diencephalon -mediate*communication*between*the*hippocampus*and*the*
frontal*cortex
Brain&Substrates
October*28,*2014
11:21*AM

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Information*that*we*receive*travels*different*parts*of*the*brain*and*it*is*
subject*to*conditioning*along*the*way
Sensory*input*carried*by*ascending*activating*systems
Sensory*information*coming*into*the*brain*activating*thalamus*and*
hypothalamus*-creates*a*tension*in*the*physiological*level
Target*regions*are*activated*simultaneously*and*focus*on*various*attributes*of*
the*stimuli
Output*-creates*emotion*or*motion*away*or*towards*the*stimuli
Diagram:
When*you*reach*cortical*levels,*you*start*seeing*things*explicitly* -essence*of*
learning*and*memory
Processing*of*this*information*depends*upon*the*emotional*content*of*the*
information*and*the*stage*of*individual*during*the*learning*process
From*moment*to*moment,*you*don't*always*feel*something*-but*the*
brain*is*still*working,*allows*us*to*go*about*without*making*decisions*
every*step*of*the*way
Emotional*context
Physiological*need
Activation*of*papez*circuit*-anterior*thalamus,*cingulate*cortex,*
hippocampus*and*hypothalamus
§
Papez*circuit,*amygdala
Autonomic*nervous*system
Context*relationships*hippocampus,*amygdala
Emotional*and*state-dependent*regulation*and*memory
Graph*2:
Central*system*receive*information*from*the*ambient*world
Messages*are*sent*to*peripheral*systems,*changing*peripheral*activity
System*in*our*brain*that*allows*us*to*discriminate*between*what*has*gone*
before*and*what*is*happening*now
There*has*to*be*an*integration*(plasticity)*-association*of*stimulus
We*become*aware*of*what*is*going*on
Divergence*-accounts*for*the*information*that*are*accessible*consciously*(we*
have*a*memory*about*the*emotion*itself)*and*inaccessible*(emotional*memory)
Medial*temporal*lobe*memory*system
Conscious*memory*about*emotion*-allows*the*organism*to*determine*their*
relationship*to*the*stimuli
Unconscious*memory*-amygdala
The*active*and*temporary*representation*of*information*that*is*
maintained*for*the*short*term*memory
Type*of*memory*where*we*have*things*that*are*temporarily*stored*that*
we*work*up*to*integrate*to*other*memories*stored*in*the*brain
Temporary*retention*of*information*just*experienced* or*just*retrieved*
from*the*long-term*memory
Every*moment*of*the*day
You*cannot*revisit*as*an*episode*-the*brain*has*to*reconstruct*the*whole*
memory
Cognitive*control*-the*manipulation*and*application*of*working*memory*
for*planning,*task*switching,*attention,*stimulus*selection,*and*the*
inhibition*of*inappropriate*reflexive*behaviours
Manipulation*of*the*working*memory*allows*for*control*of*various*aspects*
of*higher-order*cognition
Working(memory -initial* acquisition*of*information*from*sensory*input*(short*
term)
Sensory(memory -information*automatically*and*rapidly*decays*
(sensations*of*what*you*have*just*perceived*when*you*have*seen,*heard,*
touched,*smelled,*or*tasted*something)
The*site*of*working*memory*operations
§
This*memory*is*also*limited*to*what*you*can*pay*attention*to
§
Chunking*-is*an*essential*tool*for*controlling*our*short-term*
memory*and*using*it*effectively*to*store,*temporarily,*as*much*
information*as*possible
§
Short-term(memory -information*can*be*maintained*as*long*as*it*is*
rehearsed*or*consciously*attended*to
Transient(memories -are*short-lasting*mental*representations,*sometimes*
persistent*for*only*a*few*seconds
Defined*by*duration,*function*and*underlying*mechanism
Memories*can*be*retained*for*long*periods,*possibly*permanent,*without*
requiring*ongoing*maintenance*or*conscious*attention
Long-term(memory -laying*down*of*traces*that*have*been*and*worked*for*us,*
and*are*accessible* for*a*long*time*(episodic*and*semantic)
Short&versus&long&term&memory&(with&working&and&sensory&memory)
Explicit* memory*-are*memories*that*are*consciously*accessible*that*we*can*
remember
Implicit*memory*-memory*that*you*may*not*be*aware*you've*acquired
Explicit&vs.&Implicit
Declarative* memory*-we*are*aware*of*accessing*consciously*and*are*easily*
verbalized*(episodic*and*semantic)
Somewhat*temporary*that*can*be*revisited*-involves*the*
hippocampus
§
Revisited*as*an*episode
§
Episodic*memory*are*autobiographical*-the*event*you*recall* must*
have*happened*to*you
§
Episodic*-memory*of*an*event;*every*time*we*walk*down*the*hall*we*are*
creating*events
Semantic*-memory*of*things,*stored*in*different*locations*depending*on*
how*often*things*are*needed
Semantic*vs.*Episodic*(long*term)
Non-declarative*memory*-not*always*easy*to*communicate*(skill*learning)
Declarative&vs.&Non-declarative
The*even*is*first*buffered*in*working*memory,*in*prefrontal*cortex
Then*its*replayed*to*the*hippocampus,*which*is*involved*in*storing*the*event*in*
episodic*memory
WM*involves*frontal*cortex*and*the*temporoparietal*junction
The*basic*idea
Skilled*memory*are*difficult*to*explain*in*words
Skilled*vs.*Memory*for*Events*and*Facts
Working*memory*refers*to*a*brain*system*that*provides*temporary*storage*and*
manipulation*of*the*information*necessary*for*such*complex*cognitive*tasks*as*
language,*comprehension,*learning*and*reasoning
Mental*workspace*for*storing*and*manipulating*visual*and*spatial*
information
§
The*visuospatial*sketch*pad -holds*visual*and*spatial*images*for*
manipulation
The*phonological*loop -holds*auditory*memories,*maintaining*them*by*
means*of*internal*(subvocal)*speech*rehearsal
Short-term*memory*buffers:*(stored*separately in*working*memory)*-
responsible*for*the*maintenance
Monitors*and*manipulates*both*of*these*working-memory*buffers,*
providing*cognitive*control*of*working*memory
Includes*adding*to*and*deleting*from*these*items*in*the*buffers,*selecting*
among*the*items*in*order*to*guide*behaviour,*retrieving*information*from*
long-term*memory,*and*transferring*information*from*the*visuospatial*
sketchpad*and*phonological*loop*to*long-term*memory
This*includes*adding*and*removing*items,*reordering*items,*and*using*
working*memory*to*guide*other*behaviours
Controlled*updating*of*short-term*memory*buffers*-updates*working*
memory*by*receiving*and*evaluating*sensory*information,*moving*items*
into*and*retrieving*them*from*long-term*memory,*deciding*which*
memories*are*needed*for*which*tasks
Setting*goals*and*planning
Task*swtiching
The(central(executive -controls*attention*(responsible*for*the*manipulation*of*
information*in*short-term*memory)
Baddeley*episodic*buffer
Delayed*nonmatch-to-sample*task
Baddeley's&model&of&working&memory
Updates*working*memory*by*receiving*and*evaluating*sensory*
information,*moving*items*into*and*retrieving*them*from*long-term*
memory,*and*deciding*which*memories*are*needed*for*which*tasks
§
The*central*executive* needs*to*keep*track*of*the*various*everyday*
tasks*you*need*to*perform
§
Controlled*updating*of*short-term*memory*buffers
Central*executive*is*responsible*for*the*keeping*track*of*goals,*
planning*how*to*achieve*them*and*determining*priorities
§
Setting*goals*and*planning
Paying*attention*to*the*task*currently*attended*to*while*at*the*same*
time*monitoring*external*cues*for*information*that*may*signal*the*
need*to*switch*to*another*task
§
Task*switching
Central*executive*inhibits*habitual*response*that*he*has*developed*
and*shift*his*attention*to*an*alternative,*context-specific*rule
§
Stimulus*attention*and*response*inhibition
Cognitive*control*is*essential*to:
Cognitive&Control
Same*concept*that*working*memory*uses*-bringing*in*things*that*we*want*to*
hold*as*a*memory*just*in*case*we*need*to*do*something*about*it
Notion*of*chunking -our*working*memory*has*a*capacity*to*work*only*on*certain*
things*at*a*time*in*a*linear* manner
It*does*so*by*synthesizing*external*and*internal*information*needed*to*
guide*complex*behaviours
Intellectual*functions*of*planning,*foresight,*decision*making*and*related*
behaviours
Damage*to*the*PFC*of*war*veterans*caused*impairment*in*their*higher*
intellectual* abilities*(to*plan*and*to*organize)
PFC*holds*in*mid*the*information*needed*to*make*later*responses*and*
that*the*neural*activity*in*the*PFC*was*acting*as*a*temporal*bridge*
between*stimulus*and*cues
Active*when*people*recall*past*events
§
DLPFC -remembering*the*stimulus*location*(monitoring*the*information*
in*working*memory)
Cortical*speech*and*visual*areas -maintenance*functions*for*verbal*and*
object*or*location*information
VLPFC-supports*active*rehearsal*and*maintenance*functions
Prefrontal(cortex-critical* for*initiating*executive*functions*and*cognitive*
controls*(working*memory*and*executive*control)
Creates*associations*amongst*the*attributes*-spatial,*sound,*state*of*the*
organism*etc
Dentate*gyrus -responsible*for*the*discrimination
Hippocampus -determine*if*the*information*is*important*enough*to*retain*as*a*
memory
Brain&Substrates
Read&Chapter&7
A*memory*for*a*specific*autobiographical*event
Includes*information*about*the*spatial*and*temporal*context*-where*and*when*
the*event*occurred
Can*be*communicated*flexibly
Is*consciously*accessible
Episodic&Memory
Memories*for*facts*and*general*knowledge*about*the*world*-as*well*as*for*
personal*information*such*as*your*own*name*and*your*favorite*food
Not*tagged*with*time*and*space*
Can*also*be*communicated*flexibly
Is*consciously*accessible
Semantic&Memory
Depth-of-processing(effect -deeper*processing*at*encoding*of*new*information*
improves*the*ability*to*remember*that*information*later
It*is*also*easier*toe*remember*information*if*you*can*relate*it*to*things*you*
already*know
Encoding&New&Memories
Transfer-appropriate*processing*effect*-finding*that*retrieval*is*more*likely*to*be*
successful*if*the*cues*available*at*recall*are*similar*to*those*that*were*available*
at*encoding
Free(recall -you*are*asked*an*open-ended*question*and*you*supply*the*answer*
from*memory
Cued(recall -you*are*given*some*kind*of*a*prompt*or*clue*to*the*correct*answer
Recognition -you*pick*out*the*correct*answer*from*a*list*of*possible*options*
Retrieving&Existing&Memories
Directed(forgetting -when*information*is*forgotten*on*demand*or*intentionally
Proactive*interference*-old*information*can*disrupt*new*learning
Retroactive*interference*-new*information*can*disrupt*old*learning
Interference-when*two*memories*overlap*in*content,*the*strength*of*either*or*
both*memories*may*be*reduced
Source*amnesia -we*remember*information*but*cannot*remember*the*
source*at*all
Cryptomnesia -mistaken*thinks*that*his*thoughts*are*novel*or*original*
when*he's**actually*remembering*information*he*learned*somewhere*else
Misattribution -we*remember*information*but*mistakenly*associate*it*with*an*
incorrect*source
False(memories -memories*of*events*that*never*actually*happened
When&Memory&Fails
Cerebral(cortex -divided*into*sensory*cortex*(somatosensory,*auditory,*visual)
Thus,*cerebral* cortex*is*a*primary*storage*for*many*kinds*of*semantic*
information
Association(cortex-involved*in*associating*information*within*and*across*
modalities
Auditory(agnosia(of(speech -they*can*hear*but*cannot*understand*the*
meaning*of*spoken*words
Associative(visual(agnosia -have*difficulty*recognizing*and*naming*objects*
they*can*see
Tactile(agnosia -cannot*describe*the*object*they*are*touching*although*
they*know*it*by*sight
Cortical*damage*may*lead*to*agnosia*-relatively*selective* disruption*of*the*
ability*to*process*a*particular*kind*of*semantic*information
Hippocampus -storage*of*new*episodic*and*semantic*memory*(mostly*
about*autobiographical,*episodic*events)
Damage*to*the*hippocampus*(bilateral*medial*temporal*lobe)*causes*
anterograde*amnesia -the*loss*of*ability*to*form*new*episodic*and*
semantic*memory
Entorhinal*cortex*and*perirhinal*cortex*-responsible*for*semantic*learning
Following*a*pattern*known*as*Ribot*gradient*-loss*is*worst*for*
events*that*occurred*shortly*after*the*injury*than*for*events*that*
occurred*in*the*distant*past
§
Retrograde*amnesia*-loss*of*memories*for*events*that*occurred*after*the*
injury
Medial(temporal(lobe contains*the*hippocampus,*amygdala*and*nearby*cortical*
areas*(entorhinal*cortex,*and*perirhinal* cortex)
Initially,*all*off*the*areas*of*the*cortex*carrying*many*components*of*the*
episodic*are*linked*together*via*the*hippocampus*into*unified*episodic*
memory
Over*time,*through*the*process*of*consolidation,*the*components*can*
form*direct*connections*with*one*another*and*no*longer*need*
hippocampal*mediation
Standard&consolidation&theory -the*hippocampus*and*related*medial*temporal*
love*structures*are*required*for*the*initial* storage*and*retrieval*of*an*episodic*
memory*as*consisting*of*many*components
Multiple&memory&trace&theory -episodic*memory*are*encoded*by*an*ensemble*
of*hippocampal*and*cortical*networks,*and*the*cortical*networks*never,*in*
normal*circumstances,*become*fully*independent*of*the*hippocampal*networks
Frontal&cortex -help*determine*what*information*we*store*and*remember*and*
what*information*we*don't*store*and*forget
Basal&forebrain -help*guide*how*the*hippocampus*stores*new*information
Diencephalon -mediate*communication*between*the*hippocampus*and*the*
frontal*cortex
Brain&Substrates
Conditioning(vs.(Memory
October*28,*2014 11:21*AM

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Information*that*we*receive*travels*different*parts*of*the*brain*and*it*is*
subject*to*conditioning*along*the*way
Sensory*input*carried*by*ascending*activating*systems
Sensory*information*coming*into*the*brain*activating*thalamus*and*
hypothalamus*-creates*a*tension*in*the*physiological*level
Target*regions*are*activated*simultaneously*and*focus*on*various*attributes*of*
the*stimuli
Output*-creates*emotion*or*motion*away*or*towards*the*stimuli
Diagram:
When*you*reach*cortical*levels,*you*start*seeing*things*explicitly* -essence*of*
learning*and*memory
Processing*of*this*information*depends*upon*the*emotional*content*of*the*
information*and*the*stage*of*individual*during*the*learning*process
From*moment*to*moment,*you*don't*always*feel*something*-but*the*
brain*is*still*working,*allows*us*to*go*about*without*making*decisions*
every*step*of*the*way
Emotional*context
Physiological*need
Activation*of*papez*circuit*-anterior*thalamus,*cingulate*cortex,*
hippocampus*and*hypothalamus
§
Papez*circuit,*amygdala
Autonomic*nervous*system
Context*relationships*hippocampus,*amygdala
Emotional*and*state-dependent*regulation*and*memory
Graph*2:
Central*system*receive*information*from*the*ambient*world
Messages*are*sent*to*peripheral*systems,*changing*peripheral*activity
System*in*our*brain*that*allows*us*to*discriminate*between*what*has*gone*
before*and*what*is*happening*now
There*has*to*be*an*integration*(plasticity)*-association*of*stimulus
We*become*aware*of*what*is*going*on
Divergence*-accounts*for*the*information*that*are*accessible*consciously*(we*
have*a*memory*about*the*emotion*itself)*and*inaccessible*(emotional*memory)
Medial*temporal*lobe*memory*system
Conscious*memory*about*emotion*-allows*the*organism*to*determine*their*
relationship*to*the*stimuli
Unconscious*memory*-amygdala
The*active*and*temporary*representation*of*information*that*is*
maintained*for*the*short*term*memory
Type*of*memory*where*we*have*things*that*are*temporarily*stored*that*
we*work*up*to*integrate*to*other*memories*stored*in*the*brain
Temporary*retention*of*information*just*experienced* or*just*retrieved*
from*the*long-term*memory
Every*moment*of*the*day
You*cannot*revisit*as*an*episode*-the*brain*has*to*reconstruct*the*whole*
memory
Cognitive*control*-the*manipulation*and*application*of*working*memory*
for*planning,*task*switching,*attention,*stimulus*selection,*and*the*
inhibition*of*inappropriate*reflexive*behaviours
Manipulation*of*the*working*memory*allows*for*control*of*various*aspects*
of*higher-order*cognition
Working(memory -initial* acquisition*of*information*from*sensory*input*(short*
term)
Sensory(memory -information*automatically*and*rapidly*decays*
(sensations*of*what*you*have*just*perceived*when*you*have*seen,*heard,*
touched,*smelled,*or*tasted*something)
The*site*of*working*memory*operations
§
This*memory*is*also*limited*to*what*you*can*pay*attention*to
§
Chunking*-is*an*essential*tool*for*controlling*our*short-term*
memory*and*using*it*effectively*to*store,*temporarily,*as*much*
information*as*possible
§
Short-term(memory -information*can*be*maintained*as*long*as*it*is*
rehearsed*or*consciously*attended*to
Transient(memories -are*short-lasting*mental*representations,*sometimes*
persistent*for*only*a*few*seconds
Defined*by*duration,*function*and*underlying*mechanism
Memories*can*be*retained*for*long*periods,*possibly*permanent,*without*
requiring*ongoing*maintenance*or*conscious*attention
Long-term(memory -laying*down*of*traces*that*have*been*and*worked*for*us,*
and*are*accessible* for*a*long*time*(episodic*and*semantic)
Short&versus&long&term&memory&(with&working&and&sensory&memory)
Explicit* memory*-are*memories*that*are*consciously*accessible*that*we*can*
remember
Implicit*memory*-memory*that*you*may*not*be*aware*you've*acquired
Explicit&vs.&Implicit
Declarative* memory*-we*are*aware*of*accessing*consciously*and*are*easily*
verbalized*(episodic*and*semantic)
Somewhat*temporary*that*can*be*revisited*-involves*the*
hippocampus
§
Revisited*as*an*episode
§
Episodic*memory*are*autobiographical*-the*event*you*recall* must*
have*happened*to*you
§
Episodic*-memory*of*an*event;*every*time*we*walk*down*the*hall*we*are*
creating*events
Semantic*-memory*of*things,*stored*in*different*locations*depending*on*
how*often*things*are*needed
Semantic*vs.*Episodic*(long*term)
Non-declarative*memory*-not*always*easy*to*communicate*(skill*learning)
Declarative&vs.&Non-declarative
The*even*is*first*buffered*in*working*memory,*in*prefrontal*cortex
Then*its*replayed*to*the*hippocampus,*which*is*involved*in*storing*the*event*in*
episodic*memory
WM*involves*frontal*cortex*and*the*temporoparietal*junction
The*basic*idea
Skilled*memory*are*difficult*to*explain*in*words
Skilled*vs.*Memory*for*Events*and*Facts
Working*memory*refers*to*a*brain*system*that*provides*temporary*storage*and*
manipulation*of*the*information*necessary*for*such*complex*cognitive*tasks*as*
language,*comprehension,*learning*and*reasoning
Mental*workspace*for*storing*and*manipulating*visual*and*spatial*
information
§
The*visuospatial*sketch*pad -holds*visual*and*spatial*images*for*
manipulation
The*phonological*loop -holds*auditory*memories,*maintaining*them*by*
means*of*internal*(subvocal)*speech*rehearsal
Short-term*memory*buffers:*(stored*separately in*working*memory)*-
responsible*for*the*maintenance
Monitors*and*manipulates*both*of*these*working-memory*buffers,*
providing*cognitive*control*of*working*memory
Includes*adding*to*and*deleting*from*these*items*in*the*buffers,*selecting*
among*the*items*in*order*to*guide*behaviour,*retrieving*information*from*
long-term*memory,*and*transferring*information*from*the*visuospatial*
sketchpad*and*phonological*loop*to*long-term*memory
This*includes*adding*and*removing*items,*reordering*items,*and*using*
working*memory*to*guide*other*behaviours
Controlled*updating*of*short-term*memory*buffers*-updates*working*
memory*by*receiving*and*evaluating*sensory*information,*moving*items*
into*and*retrieving*them*from*long-term*memory,*deciding*which*
memories*are*needed*for*which*tasks
Setting*goals*and*planning
Task*swtiching
The(central(executive -controls*attention*(responsible*for*the*manipulation*of*
information*in*short-term*memory)
Baddeley*episodic*buffer
Delayed*nonmatch-to-sample*task
Baddeley's&model&of&working&memory
Updates*working*memory*by*receiving*and*evaluating*sensory*
information,*moving*items*into*and*retrieving*them*from*long-term*
memory,*and*deciding*which*memories*are*needed*for*which*tasks
§
The*central*executive* needs*to*keep*track*of*the*various*everyday*
tasks*you*need*to*perform
§
Controlled*updating*of*short-term*memory*buffers
Central*executive*is*responsible*for*the*keeping*track*of*goals,*
planning*how*to*achieve*them*and*determining*priorities
§
Setting*goals*and*planning
Paying*attention*to*the*task*currently*attended*to*while*at*the*same*
time*monitoring*external*cues*for*information*that*may*signal*the*
need*to*switch*to*another*task
§
Task*switching
Central*executive*inhibits*habitual*response*that*he*has*developed*
and*shift*his*attention*to*an*alternative,*context-specific*rule
§
Stimulus*attention*and*response*inhibition
Cognitive*control*is*essential*to:
Cognitive&Control
Same*concept*that*working*memory*uses*-bringing*in*things*that*we*want*to*
hold*as*a*memory*just*in*case*we*need*to*do*something*about*it
Notion*of*chunking -our*working*memory*has*a*capacity*to*work*only*on*certain*
things*at*a*time*in*a*linear* manner
It*does*so*by*synthesizing*external*and*internal*information*needed*to*
guide*complex*behaviours
Intellectual*functions*of*planning,*foresight,*decision*making*and*related*
behaviours
Damage*to*the*PFC*of*war*veterans*caused*impairment*in*their*higher*
intellectual* abilities*(to*plan*and*to*organize)
PFC*holds*in*mid*the*information*needed*to*make*later*responses*and*
that*the*neural*activity*in*the*PFC*was*acting*as*a*temporal*bridge*
between*stimulus*and*cues
Active*when*people*recall*past*events
§
DLPFC -remembering*the*stimulus*location*(monitoring*the*information*
in*working*memory)
Cortical*speech*and*visual*areas -maintenance*functions*for*verbal*and*
object*or*location*information
VLPFC-supports*active*rehearsal*and*maintenance*functions
Prefrontal(cortex-critical* for*initiating*executive*functions*and*cognitive*
controls*(working*memory*and*executive*control)
Creates*associations*amongst*the*attributes*-spatial,*sound,*state*of*the*
organism*etc
Dentate*gyrus -responsible*for*the*discrimination
Hippocampus -determine*if*the*information*is*important*enough*to*retain*as*a*
memory
Brain&Substrates
Read&Chapter&7
A*memory*for*a*specific*autobiographical*event
Includes*information*about*the*spatial*and*temporal*context*-where*and*when*
the*event*occurred
Can*be*communicated*flexibly
Is*consciously*accessible
Episodic&Memory
Memories*for*facts*and*general*knowledge*about*the*world*-as*well*as*for*
personal*information*such*as*your*own*name*and*your*favorite*food
Not*tagged*with*time*and*space*
Can*also*be*communicated*flexibly
Is*consciously*accessible
Semantic&Memory
Depth-of-processing(effect -deeper*processing*at*encoding*of*new*information*
improves*the*ability*to*remember*that*information*later
It*is*also*easier*toe*remember*information*if*you*can*relate*it*to*things*you*
already*know
Encoding&New&Memories
Transfer-appropriate*processing*effect*-finding*that*retrieval*is*more*likely*to*be*
successful*if*the*cues*available*at*recall*are*similar*to*those*that*were*available*
at*encoding
Free(recall -you*are*asked*an*open-ended*question*and*you*supply*the*answer*
from*memory
Cued(recall -you*are*given*some*kind*of*a*prompt*or*clue*to*the*correct*answer
Recognition -you*pick*out*the*correct*answer*from*a*list*of*possible*options*
Retrieving&Existing&Memories
Directed(forgetting -when*information*is*forgotten*on*demand*or*intentionally
Proactive*interference*-old*information*can*disrupt*new*learning
Retroactive*interference*-new*information*can*disrupt*old*learning
Interference-when*two*memories*overlap*in*content,*the*strength*of*either*or*
both*memories*may*be*reduced
Source*amnesia -we*remember*information*but*cannot*remember*the*
source*at*all
Cryptomnesia -mistaken*thinks*that*his*thoughts*are*novel*or*original*
when*he's**actually*remembering*information*he*learned*somewhere*else
Misattribution -we*remember*information*but*mistakenly*associate*it*with*an*
incorrect*source
False(memories -memories*of*events*that*never*actually*happened
When&Memory&Fails
Cerebral(cortex -divided*into*sensory*cortex*(somatosensory,*auditory,*visual)
Thus,*cerebral* cortex*is*a*primary*storage*for*many*kinds*of*semantic*
information
Association(cortex-involved*in*associating*information*within*and*across*
modalities
Auditory(agnosia(of(speech -they*can*hear*but*cannot*understand*the*
meaning*of*spoken*words
Associative(visual(agnosia -have*difficulty*recognizing*and*naming*objects*
they*can*see
Tactile(agnosia -cannot*describe*the*object*they*are*touching*although*
they*know*it*by*sight
Cortical*damage*may*lead*to*agnosia*-relatively*selective* disruption*of*the*
ability*to*process*a*particular*kind*of*semantic*information
Hippocampus -storage*of*new*episodic*and*semantic*memory*(mostly*
about*autobiographical,*episodic*events)
Damage*to*the*hippocampus*(bilateral*medial*temporal*lobe)*causes*
anterograde*amnesia -the*loss*of*ability*to*form*new*episodic*and*
semantic*memory
Entorhinal*cortex*and*perirhinal*cortex*-responsible*for*semantic*learning
Following*a*pattern*known*as*Ribot*gradient*-loss*is*worst*for*
events*that*occurred*shortly*after*the*injury*than*for*events*that*
occurred*in*the*distant*past
§
Retrograde*amnesia*-loss*of*memories*for*events*that*occurred*after*the*
injury
Medial(temporal(lobe contains*the*hippocampus,*amygdala*and*nearby*cortical*
areas*(entorhinal*cortex,*and*perirhinal* cortex)
Initially,*all*off*the*areas*of*the*cortex*carrying*many*components*of*the*
episodic*are*linked*together*via*the*hippocampus*into*unified*episodic*
memory
Over*time,*through*the*process*of*consolidation,*the*components*can*
form*direct*connections*with*one*another*and*no*longer*need*
hippocampal*mediation
Standard&consolidation&theory -the*hippocampus*and*related*medial*temporal*
love*structures*are*required*for*the*initial* storage*and*retrieval*of*an*episodic*
memory*as*consisting*of*many*components
Multiple&memory&trace&theory -episodic*memory*are*encoded*by*an*ensemble*
of*hippocampal*and*cortical*networks,*and*the*cortical*networks*never,*in*
normal*circumstances,*become*fully*independent*of*the*hippocampal*networks
Frontal&cortex -help*determine*what*information*we*store*and*remember*and*
what*information*we*don't*store*and*forget
Basal&forebrain -help*guide*how*the*hippocampus*stores*new*information
Diencephalon -mediate*communication*between*the*hippocampus*and*the*
frontal*cortex
Brain&Substrates
Conditioning(vs.(Memory
October*28,*2014 11:21*AM
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