Arbitrariness signal doesn"t resemble what it represents. Flexibility and naming referents have labels and they can be changed (flexible: different language has different label for the same item. Duality of patterning the signal can be broken down into smaller units (or different levels: a sentence can be broken into words and words can be broken down into sounds. Productivity we can create an infinite number of new meaningful utterances from a finite number of meaningful signals: we (cid:272)a(cid:374) (cid:272)o(cid:373)(cid:271)i(cid:374)e u(cid:374)it"s i(cid:374)fi(cid:374)ite (cid:374)u(cid:373)(cid:271)e(cid:396)s of (cid:449)a(cid:455) Displacement (cid:449)e (cid:272)a(cid:374) (cid:272)o(cid:373)(cid:373)u(cid:374)i(cid:272)ate a(cid:271)out thi(cid:374)gs that a(cid:396)e(cid:374)"t p(cid:396)ese(cid:374)t or never going to exist: makes language an important tool, define the different levels used to study language. Phonology: study of the sound of language. Morphology: study of words and the parts of words. Semantics: meaning contained within language; study of language. Syntax: the rules of structure of language.